In Volume 1, ISA 88 and 95 are explained in the context of the pharmaceutical and medical industries. Examples of such batch processing procedures as fermentation, separation, and refinement are discussed and how the two standards affect the design of facilities and systems for performing these procedures. The ISA 88 and 95 standards have been around and periodically updated for nearly 20 years now, but little really helpful has been published on how to put those standards into use, particularly from a pragmatic, real-life experience point of view.
The four books in this new series will do exactly that: explain to the manufacturing engineer, the controls engineers, and the industrial planner and manager alike how these standards translate into improved batch and continuous process operations -- and ultimately how those operations can be integrated and automated into general business operations accounting, inventory, customer relations, product development of the manufacturing concern.
Considerations for Managing Global Recipe Development. Conferences continued annually until the economic crash of There was no conference in because many compa- nies, including WBF, were conserving their resources. WBF remained active and solvent despite the recession, so a successful confer- ence was held in using facilities at the University of Texas in Austin.
Several papers spoke of the need for procedural control for continuous and discrete pro- cesses. Batch control is not normally associated with such processes, but ISA 88 has a large section on the design of procedural control. There is a need for a way to apply that knowledge to continuous and discrete processes, and some of those discussions will no doubt be held at WBF conferences, especially if the economy recovers. We would like to invite you to attend our conference and participate in those discussions.
We have not lost our focus on batch; we have widened our view to include other related technologies such as procedural automation. William D. Many years ago, some dedicated visionaries realized that procedure-controlled automation would be able to codify and regularize the principles of batch pro- cessing. They set out on a journey that eventually arrived at the publication of the batch standard ISA 88 and the development of the manufacturing language standard ISA WBF has been an unsung hero in the conversion of manufacturing- to standards-based systems.
Today, WBF continues as the voice of procedure-controlled automation in the process and hybrid and batch processing industries. The chapters that make up this book series provide a clear indication of the power and knowledge of the members of WBF. I have been proud to be associated with this group of visionaries for many years. Control magazine and ControlGlobal. You will be glad you did. The chapters in this book are written by people who have implemented systems with the aid of various parts of the ISA standard. There is very little untested theory here.
The chapters are divided into three sections:. Some chapters refer to SAP, a multinational business software company. WBF normally discourages commercial references, but SAP was the pound gorilla in the room and needed to be mentioned. To fix this, it introduces thirty-eight acronyms used in ten times as many places. Chapters 4, 7, 9, and 11 discuss the uses of B2MML and provide examples of code. This is the reason that you will find that your favorite capitalized words are not capitalized in certain instances.
As a community of people that read books and papers on manufacturing process automation and business-shopfloor integration, we are used to every other word being capitalized because it is the name of a concept or a program variable, schema, and so on. The capitalization of terms in specification documents only makes it worse.
The WBF Book Series: ISA-88 Implementation Experiences
The problem is mitigated by using acronyms that are defined once in each chapter. Some words and phrases that are capitalized are important concepts that should be differentiated from common usage; others really are proper names. The rest contain the desired information whether they are capitalized or not, and so the CMS prevails. Historical Perspective Two kinds of computer control systems have evolved since technology made them possible. The first types of systems that automated business procedures such as payroll, manufacturing profit and loss, human resources, and others were all derived from a monetary viewpoint.
The second types of systems auto- mated process control, beginning with the basic Proportional-Integral-Derivative PID loop and adding control functions as the computer and glass control panel became accepted. Some business computer vendors tried to get into the process control field and failed for lack of knowledge of what they were getting into.
Process control is concerned with maintaining and recording process measurements, not profit and loss.
Operators want to know how the process is doing and want to have handles that will let them take corrective action, with less than a second elapsing between command and response. And so it was that a great divide opened up between manufacturing control and business IT. Manufacturing requires uninterruptible computing power, with service required all day, every day of the week. Everyone in manufacturing has a story about a failure at 3 a. Business machines operated weekdays, and users. Can you call back tomorrow? All this was in flux when ISA95 was born in The original impetus came from the extravagant claims of MES vendors saying they could connect the board- room to the shop floor.
It is not to their credit that they did not understand that people in upper management had no training in the safe operation of their man- ufacturing facilities. There is still a lot of talk about the shop floor. When the day comes that there is nothing more to do on the shop floor, marketing will discover that there is a basement under the shop floor and that it has data.
That will set off another round of product differentiators and books like this one. Distributed Control Systems DCSs use parallel processing to crunch incom- prehensible amounts of data. PID controllers may save some data from the last one or two iterations, but they are mainly concerned with current measurements and previous outputs. Historians may be able to capture the results of each cycle, but this fire hose stream of data needs to be condensed before a human can make use of it. Communication means secure transactions to business people.
Control people are more used to the publish-and-subscribe model because there is not enough time for secure transactions. One other aspect of communication is not discussed in these chapters, and that is time synchronization among systems. Some systems are islands in time,. GPS time receiv- ers can be used to synchronize networks that are isolated by a data diode. Considering all the messages that have to be time stamped, this is a good thing. The U. Foundation Fieldbus was designed to provide this capability in the early nineties.
The limit of time resolution is set by the execu- tion cycle of the control function blocks. A block must execute to get a value or announce an alarm, and that execution time is set by the macrocycle for block execution. Nobody executes all of them at once. Defining a language requires syntax, vocabulary, and grammar that can be understood by both sides.
Furthermore, computer networks require addresses and rules for packing a message into a bag of bits and also require ways to handle errors. TCP has rules for finding lost messages and recovering them by retries. Sun Microsystems introduced Java at about the same time, which was picked up by IBM and Oracle for communication among their many operating systems. Microsoft chose XML and wove it into the. Markup languages contain elements and attributes that both ends of the com- munication link must understand. An XML schema is a document that defines the elements and attributes, limits on the way they may be structured, their syn- tax, and the data types that may be used in a message.
Of course, XML is not used for any of the traffic on a. Bill Hawkins August Paresh Dalwalla President pdalwalla optebiz. The business case centers on the following:. Utilizing ISA, schema foundation, appli- cations, methods, and business cases are established through a structured MAF consisting of 1 workflow function organization, 2 transformation best practices for operations applications, and 3 their transactional interfaces. These works are intended as the foundation for standardized best practices for infor- mation exchange between plant systems and plant-to-business systems.
Over the. ISA based MOM applications and methods are recognized as the foundation for con- figurable, interoperable software tools to integrate interoperable data in readily useful forms to extended enterprise systems. This chapter assumes that the reader is familiar with ISA and B2MML and so will focus on best practices and busi- ness cases and will not provide a standards overview. ISA methods and technical applications that characterize, support, and adapt production workflow processes 2.
Training and staffing. Defined system roles and skill sets for person- nel for MOM processes 3. A defined transformation and life-cycle management pro- cess for MOM. By utilizing developing ISA methodology and technical applications, the TCO for manufacturing IT architectures as well as manufacturing and supply chain operational costs are dramatically reduced.
Manufacturing markets are. This coordi- nated data exchange across global supply chains and internal enterprise groups is just a part of the ISA business case. For any 21st-century manufacturer to be competitive, actual manufacturing operations activities must be highly interactive in supply chain and enterprise processes for effective collaboration and competi- tion.
This is the domain of collaborative and flexible MOM system architectures. Global Business Drivers for Flexible Manufacturing Each vertical industry is being influenced by their unique combination of the fol- lowing global business drivers for flexible manufacturing:. The other side of the challenge includes organizational issues and aligning the goals and objectives of the different players in the organization as the company designs their 21st-century business model.
Manufacturers that adopt a standard- ized approach to understanding, implementing, and deriving benefits from MOM applications should be able to accelerate the transformation to a successful imple- mentation while increasing satisfaction levels of users. The B2M integration of operational systems requires unique skills to accelerate the B2M transformation. A thorough understanding of the following is essential:. The current MOM skills sets available in the marketplace are often segregated across these knowledge items by different levels; team members must become more broadly based to successfully integrate MOM architectures horizontally as well as vertically across the different levels.
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Timing is the key to profitability now. This value objective is not new, but maturing capabilities of Web technologies. These ISA parts are establishing the real-time basis to quantify cycle time, cost, and resource elements of workflow for production, maintenance, inventory, and quality. As seen in Figure 1. These data elements are required for scheduling and planning order fulfillment across DDSNs. This is the foundation for aligning the development of the two standards, as ISA parts 4 and 6 are composed over the next few years.
SOA Components Over the last 15 years, integration technology has evolved from data to process level capabilities with SOAs being the merger of business process management and the enterprise services bus. SOA surrounds Web services containing the business pro- cess rules with various technologies to manage, orchestrate, and choreograph Web services into an executable business model.
Core SOA services include the following:. The necessary practice of out- sourcing production to contract manufacturers is driven by global markets in growing economies such as India, China, and Eastern Europe, across all industries. The result is low-cost competition for North American and European suppliers, due to lower labor and operating costs. Also, outsourcing has accelerated adoption. Basically, the order fulfillment path is now determined by evaluating real-time supply chain cost to customer demand for on-time delivery at a specific quality level.
Order commitments are made based on this algorithm Fig. Original Equipment Manufacturers OEMs , such as IBM, GE, and HP, previously known for building a variety of products, are now known for their market-leading product designs and their ability to market and sell them by managing their DDSNs through contract-manufacturer partners and internal production. MSA-based MOM solutions provide the means for OEMs to identify available materials and resources capacity across competing supply chains in a lead time versus price form for immediate prototyping to market demand i.
The more real time the SCM, the larger the profit mar- gin due to order accuracy. As OEMs evolve their MSA practices, they build a tighter relationship with key suppliers and contract manufacturers to 1 provide forecasted demand from all customers and sales channels and 2 require real-time production records and visibility to the OEM customer from ISA based MOM solutions Fig.
These extended enterprise systems were supposed to be designed to exchange information outward to customers and suppliers in near real time. Results over the last 10 years have been poor to fair, since these tools were not designed for a DDSN global market. For some companies, these early generation systems provided quick benefit by reducing the time and costs of inter- acting with their 20th-century linear supply chain partners; however most have not achieved the predicted benefit due to lack of actual production data integ- rity response and accuracy.
This methodology will help map data and transactions between workflows of a distributed supply chain and production. ISA methods solve these limitations for system interoperability. These will be further explained as part of the ISA business justification.
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Product tracking and tracing, manufacturing execution, manufacturing intelligence portals, finite capacity and detailed scheduling, work order management, produc- tion sequencing, batch execution, recipe management, and so on n Maintenance Management Operations. With this work, the MSA concept brings the previously mentioned MOM opera- tions of a manufacturing business into alignment to intelligently respond to market forces.
Currently, corporations are attempting to identify MSA practices to publish and distribute customer demands across the supply chain. The combination of a DDSN model being driven by an ISA MAF allows a manufac- turer to capture a large market share or even create markets, due to their ability to rapidly adapt their collaborative production resources to real-time market demand.
In the current 5-year review of the first versions, many changes are being proposed due to end user lessons learned in applying the standards and schema applications not to be addressed in this chapter. However, it is important to note that B2MML version 4 is a special case of manufacturing environments and the B2M interface instance, as opposed to a general case. This is illustrated in Figure 1. B2MML version 4 is based on an academic definition at the Level 3 to Level 4 interface described in parts 1 and 2, where all MOM func- tions are plant side systems.
B2MML schema has not yet evolved and will not be able to evolve, since schema must follow the approved standard to address a more wide range of real-world B2M interfaces where many MOM functions are within centralized corporate applications. With the release of part 3 and 5— and the eventual completion of parts 4 and 6—B2MML is evolving to adequately address Level 3 MOM data and workflows for a majority of hybrid manufactur- ing environments.
Most plants are hybrid environments from dock raw materials to dock fin- ished goods packaging with a mix of work order types for customer orders e. As evolving global markets drive manufacturers to rapidly adjust their work order mix based on mar- ket demand and drivers i. Basically profit margin drives the MOM architecture.
This proposed ISA methodology is Step 3. The following is a list of the components of a simplified workflow complexity matrix:. Production types n Discrete manufacturing n Batch processing n Continuous processing. Simplified workflow complexity n Nine primary combina- matrix. Once industry has agreed upon the standard form of B2MML, the ISA body of work schema, standards, applications, and methods will adequately model the majority of the Level 3 MOM use cases, data flows, transactions, business pro- cesses, and metrics interface, Key Performance Indicators [KPI], and operational construction.
At this point — , the ISA methodology. Figure 1. This chapter and the ISA Technical Report First Edition proposes the working methodologies to drive toward these goals over the next few years. Software vendors and MOM literature are moving to this important inflection point for the next 3 to 5 years to meet the 21st- century manufacturing model requirement.
Many early innovative adopters are struggling with how to apply and extend B2MML version 4 to address their hybrid environ- ments and are taking their best guess as to where the ISA body of work will direct software vendors in the future. Industry collaboration is the real-world challenge in order to lower TCO for integrated systems through focused, dedicated effort. Industry analysts, vendors, and end users are all looking to each other for leadership for this MOM standards effort.
No clear leader has yet emerged as of this writing. A loosely coupled group of end users, vendors, and consultants are proactively forming alignment working groups, but the progress is much slower than the market need.
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The ISA business case is centered on the following:. The standard practically addresses the language terminology and schema require- ment between operations and business systems for an Application To Framework A2F data exchange required for MSA. The business case is further established by providing organization and best practices to transform operations applications and their transactional interfaces. MAF defines data exchanges and metrics for integrating the production systems 1 horizontally between MOM applications and 2 vertically between global DDSN and enterprise systems.
Both classes of best practices are early in their life cycle and are rapidly advancing due to endorsement by the end user and vendor com- munity such as SAP and Microsoft. In future white papers from the ISA95 Best Practices Workgroup, a business justification for each application and methods will be explained using the following five steps:. List the proposed ISA best practice 2. Identify the prioritized business driver and operational benefits 3. Identify the current state and the underlying forces reasons for underperformance, stakeholders, resources, etc.
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Analyze the example of capital expenditures, recurring costs, and recurring savings 5. Provide an example of a net present value analysis. Determine project objectives, scope, resources, and constraints. Obtain data to quantify process performance. Analyze data to identify root causes of production work- flow disruptions and defects. Implement an MAF or life-cycle management framework to maintain workflow performance through analysis of market to production workflow and system architecture. These technical applications are the foundation for B2M and MOM interface interoperability by providing the data hierarchy and definition for interface construction.
The following are the minimal components of a manufacturing operations assessment:. There is an established set of disparate ter- minologies, workflows, data flows, and applications that are utilized in running ongoing manufacturing operations and supply chain processes. A migration plan will involve a pre-migration step. A good pre-migration step includes a study of operational and business driv- ers for a potential transformation. Since MOM covers a wide range of functions at the manufacturing level, the business drivers prioritized with regard to quickest and highest returns may assist in identifying the following information:.
The following are tasks for this MST group:. The biggest challenge faced by various systems and engineering departments is ensuring that the implemented MOM systems are well accepted and utilized by the user community within a manufacturing operation. An effective change management plan with process expeditors developed as part of the best practices approach alleviates some of the risks associated with nonacceptance. Educating the user community and stakeholders about the benefits of MOM applications is an ongoing, challenging cultural issue.
ISA MOM architectures require the collection of large amounts of data from automated as well as manual sources. Manual sources of data are typically where questionable acceptance plays a sig- nificant role in application success. User acceptance depends on a well-defined workflow combined with ongoing validation of the benefits to individual user groups and stake holders.
Manufacturing companies typically implement point solution MOM systems that are absolutely essential for short-run requirements where the politics force a bypass of some elements of ISA best practice methodologies in order to ensure rapid deployment of the system. Table 1. As noted earlier, the best approach may be to follow the best practices model with elimination of a few steps in order to achieve the rapid deployment for short-term goals.
Deviating from the best practice at the local project level may create a risk of nonstandardized approach but could be minimized if the deviation is kept to minimal levels. ISA Business value: Holistic versus project approach Elements Generic best practices Project-specific best practices Business drivers Standard business and operational Prioritize issues related to standard metrics enterprise-wide as well as metrics and any localized metrics, plant specific based on urgency, need, returns, Definition of metrics and so on.
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