He was arrested there in Road in the Fountain area, down the road from C. Station; the chain of shops was initiated by the man himself.
Mani Bhavan Gandhi Sangrahalaya is open 9. If you go by local train, get off at Grant Road Station. The cell where he stayed has been retained as a memorial, but can only be visited with special permission. In , he developed an acute case of appendicitis and was taken to the Sassoon Hospital , just south of the Pune Railway Station.
Ambedkar at the jail. The last time MKG went to jail, as a consequence of launching the Quit India Movement in , he was given special treatment and the grand Italian-style Aga Khan Palace was converted into his prison. The palace was surrounded by a three-metre-high barbed-wire fence and 76 soldiers were on duty to guard him.
This time, his wife Kasturba and secretary Mahadev Desai were also with him. First, his trusted aide and secretary of 35 years, Mahadev, passed away due to a brain haemorrhage although rumours had it that the British had poisoned him. Then, in early , his life companion Kasturba died. Samadhi shrines commemorating both can be seen at the bottom of the lawns, towards the Mulamutha River bank.
By the end of his incarceration in Aga Khan Palace, he too was close to dying from a combination of malaria, anaemia, amoebic dysentery, hookworm, and malfunctioning kidneys. On his birth centenary in , the palace was gifted to the nation by the Aga Khan to be preserved as a memorial. Visitors can see the room in which MKG was jailed, where some of his possessions are on display.
The premises are generally familiar from the Gandhi film, so much so that you almost expect to stumble into Ben Kingsley on the veranda. Aga Khan Palace is open 9 a. Nagar Road. Pune has plenty of hotels, several interesting and old-fashioned budget lodges opposite the railway station, and many of the more posh ones in Koregaon Park adjacent to the Osho ashram area. Partly for symbolic reasons, he chose a tiny, poorly developed village at the geographical centre of India.
Sevagram village of service was set up as an experiment: to improve rural facilities with serious research, often headed by MKG himself, in areas ranging from nutrition and cooking, to waste separation, rural economics, and construction with local materials. A peepul tree planted by him still stands there. A small group of ashramites welcome visitors. Bhave had been in the area since and his ashram is still operational. Sevagram Ashram Pratishthan is open 6 a. Accommodation in both is rather basic.
He visited it for the first time in on his way home from South Africa. He went again a few months later to do political work on behalf of South African Indians and checked into the most fashionable hotel in town, the Great Eastern. He returned in December when the Indian National Congress held its annual meeting in Calcutta and during that same stay, at the start of , he addressed a public meeting at Albert Hall built and in which the famous Coffee House at College Street set up shop in As a minor politician, he was given a space to sleep in a school building, where other less influential delegates were housed.
He found the condition of the toilets disgusting and promptly borrowed cleaning implements and proceeded to tidy everything up. Rabindranath Tagore had recently won the Nobel Prize for literature and the two became close friends, sharing many a creative debate. MKG served on the board of the university at Shantiniketan, did fundraising for it, and studied Bengali. He returned to Bengal many times, but it was in the winter of that he experienced some of the saddest moments of his life here.
Terrible riots proceeded as the province faced a crippling partition into West and East Bengal. He walked barefoot through the jungles of Noakhali now in Bangladesh , trying to stop the fighting. This work was seminal in the design and analysis of dairy breeding programmes, especially in Europe, and their methodologies were in many ways superior to those being developed at the same time by Hazel and Lush in the USA. Their work led to a decline in the use of testing stations and the widespread use of family selection in selecting dairy bulls. When Rendel arrived in Australia, plans to develop tropically adapted dairy cattle were already under way through the efforts of R.
Kelley, and Rendel grasped the opportunity to apply the principles developed by him and Alan Robertson to design the first animal improvement programme in Australia based on modern quantitative genetics theory. While the AMZ programme, as it later became known, has not been a commercial success, the principles of well designed progeny testing programmes had a very considerable influence on early dairy improvement programmes in Australia.
In parallel, Rendel did much to set the direction of another animal breeding programme for the tropics, based at Rockhampton and directed at the beef industry. However, perhaps the greatest influences on Rendel while in Edinburgh were the ideas of Waddington. It was here that Rendel developed a deep commitment to the importance of developmental biology and in particular Waddington's ideas on canalisation and genetic assimilation that led to Rendel's work on the canalisation of bristles in Drosophila.
Finally, Rendel formed a strong relationship with Alex Fraser. Fraser arrived slightly before Rendel and began to set up the animal genetics unit in the Division of Animal Health and Production, in preparation for Rendel's arrival. Fraser's work on wool biology, and later in Drosophila , influenced Rendel to consider interactions among the components or determinants of any production trait, such as fleece weight.
One of Rendel's later important publications, with Ted Nay, reflects those influences. Much insight into Rendel's scientific outlook and approach, as well as knowledge of his results, can be obtained from Canalisation and Gene Development , which is based on a series of lectures and is in consequence clear and direct. Rendel stakes his claim in the first sentence of the preface: 'This book treats development as though it were a process initiated by a major gene and regulated through the major gene's action.
The experimental approach involved was not novel, in that many others e. We have included this lengthy quotation from Harvey ; because it expresses so much of Rendel's own attitude. Rendel's work was informed by the philosophy set out by Waddington but instilled into his colleagues in Edinburgh over many years. At the time he began his work, Rendel could not hope to isolate and describe the genes involved in the control mechanisms of development, so he placed his emphasis on describing and measuring how a particular major gene influenced development of a particular set of traits.
He called this underlying 'complex of influences taking part in the making of a phenotype', Make M. It is not a term that has taken on, in contrast to Waddington's canalisation, the regulation of development that produces a normal outcome in the face of environmental shocks, which is widely recognised today as important with well developed theory and experimental support, including Rendel's own pioneering work see e. Gibson and Wagner and Kitami and Nadeau It is possible that Rendel was unfortunate in the timing of his fundamental as opposed to his applied work, since it is not based on attack on the problem of the nature of the gene — that is, on how DNA constitutes the genetical message, which was the fashion throughout his civilian working life — whereas developmental genetics came into its own only during his final decade.
He was certainly unfortunate in trying to quantify development, through investigation of f M , in an era when numeracy was not demanded of developmental biologists. Many found probits Fisher and Yates rebarbative. Rendel investigated a sex-linked gene, scute sc , that influenced the formation of bristles on the scutellum of Drosophila melanogaster.
In the wild type, there are normally four bristles in this location, and the variance about this number is very low; in Waddington's term, scutellar bristle number is canalised at four. The sc gene both reduces the number of bristles formed and increases the variance of this number. Selection for increased bristle number in animals carrying one or more sc genes produced an increased number of bristles in wild-type flies as well as those carrying one or more sc.
On the assumption that underlying variation in M is Gaussian in distribution, the probit transformation allows estimation of intervals of M corresponding to frequency classes of different numbers of bristles 0,1,2,3,4,5, In this way, Rendel could show that a large range of M yielded four bristles in wild-type flies, thereby quantifying the canalisation, whereas outside this range, small changes in M could produce large changes in P.
Thus, the shape of f M could be and was determined experimentally. A second important finding, which confirmed Fisher's work on the evolution of dominance though Rendel disagreed with Fisher in his interpretation of Fisher's experiments; cf. Fisher , was that selection of modifiers of bristle number was possible through the disruptive effect of the major gene, but the selected modifiers were not regulated by the same system, or they would not have been selectable.
Rendel concluded that dominance, though a primary concept by virtue of its recognition by Mendel a century previously, was not primary in a biological sense: developmental stability was the outcome of natural selection, and dominance of the wild type a threshold effect that was a consequence of canalisation. Rendel, having explained evolved dominance and other phenomena in this fashion, went on to consider the action of selection more generally. His discussion of the different types and consequences of selection for an intermediate phenotype is a model of clarity. One at least of his conclusions remains important: regulation is an outcome of natural selection on account of its benefits to developmental processes, not because it yields intermediate optima.
From his own experimental work and a fair-minded evaluation of that of others, he showed that variability about an intermediate value could be successfully reduced by selection if that selection was carried out among animals whose variability was enhanced by a major gene such as sc , but not otherwise. He noted in contrast that many traits were not canalised, in that directional selection, whether for an increase or a decrease, was always successful.
In consequence, the variability that is important in plant and animal breeding should always be assessed for canalisation before selection was undertaken. Rendel attempted to relate his quantitative schema to gene regulation as it was understood at the time, in particular to Jacob-Monod operon theory, but the two approaches were too far apart to yield valuable results.
He was closely in touch with the development of metabolic control theory by Henrik Kacser and others, and pointed out that the case of sc could not be fitted into Kacser's framework. That is, phenomena like canalisation and dominance may be the outcome of evolution by natural selection.
In the case of dominance, it may arise as an ancillary outcome of direct selection on traits controlled by genes that are likely to influence dominance. In the case of canalisation, there is an interaction between direct stabilizing selection on a trait and selection for canalisation of that trait, such that if the genetic variance in the trait is reduced to a very low level, canalising selection will be ineffective.
Rendel's contribution, which pointed qualitatively towards many of these conclusions, has been largely absorbed in time. The final stage of Rendel's work was its practical application, the Eggatron being the most important example. This was a daylight-excluding poultry layer-house with automatic recording of the time of lay for every hen and the capability to vary day length as experienced by the hens. In nature, hens lay eggs daily for a number of days, yielding a clutch, and then set this clutch to hatch.
Before Rendel's work, increased egg numbers had come first from the breaking of the link between laying and setting, then from reduction of the inter-clutch interval and then from increase in the number of consecutive clutches, though these stages were not necessarily recognized as separate or separately selected. There may also have been selection for clutch size, but this is often highly canalised see e.
Mayo , Chapter 7 , and we know little of clutch size in ancestral poultry. In the Eggatron, day length less than 24 hours exposed additional genetical variation in rate of lay, so that the interval between eggs could be reduced from 24 hours. Increased rate of lay was obtained by Rendel's colleagues, working to his plans. Sadly, commercial breeders later chose to import germplasm rather than continue advanced work based on CSIRO research, condemning the Australian industry to import replacement and export uncompetitiveness, but Rendel's approach was commercially successful.
Helen Newton Turner's work on the Booroola gene for increased fecundity in sheep was a parallel development that was as scientifically sound and yielded, through its application to meat sheep by L. Laurie Piper and B. Bernie Bindon, potential for increased lambing, but it has not had as yet the commercial success of the Eggatron.
We have already mentioned some of the people who influence Rendel in his research directions, in particular Haldane and Waddington. Haldane and his family upbringing made Rendel respect intellect deeply but be no respecter of persons — authorities in particular. Though autocratic in some ways, he yet insisted that scientists must have intellectual freedom and adequate resources to pursue their ideas. As we have already noted, Waddington had enormous, indeed unlimited, regard for his own abilities and was delighted to appoint staff who were, as it turned out, better scientists than he, such as Alan Robertson.
A man of very broad interests to whom art and travel and the company of congenial intellectuals were hugely important, he never had time to supervise his staff closely, and by appointing those whom he knew and trusted from his wartime work, as well as brilliant young people in related fields, he created a scientific powerhouse in the Institute of Animal Genetics.
From him, Rendel learned to appoint the most talented people he could find, to give them very general direction, and to let them work towards success or failure. The results, as might have been predicted, were mixed. His success or otherwise was therefore dependent on his overall vision, and his ability to choose the people who would bring it to fruition. Indeed, in the public mind it was almost synonymous with science, and its activities were the major part of Australia's non-defence research from on see Mayo for discussion and references.
Its founding Chairman, Ian Clunies Ross, had access to everyone from the Prime Minister down, and though he died the year before Rendel took up his post as a Divisional Chief, CSIRO's standing, and consequently its funding, were unquestioned for many years.
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Rendel's Division was strongly supported by the wool and beef industries, though not as strongly as was the Animal Physiology Division by wool. The history of the wool industry in the last half-century makes gloomy reading, and many have argued that the failure of breeders to take up methods proven successful in the pig and poultry industries was in part a failure of the applied-science leadership to take the work out to industry wholeheartedly and coherently. Rendel never saw technology transfer as one of his Division's primary responsibilities, so that more effort was put into this activity in tropical dairy breeding because otherwise no progress could have been achieved, than in wool breeding.
State Departments of Agriculture and Primary Industry unquestionably had technology transfer, or extension as it was usually called, as part of their mandate, and Rendel approved of and supported strong collaboration between his Division and these agencies, but he never led the effort himself. He saw his role as scientific leadership, and in this role he was fearless. While animal production research was to some extent established in the Division of Animal Health and Production by the time that Jim Rendel arrived, he had built upon it steadily in the s.
Turner was recruited to head a small beef research group in Rockhampton to study the relationship between production and adaptation to tropical environments. A property, Belmont, was purchased with support from the Australian Meat and Livestock Corporation to provide experimental material for this research.
Later, a poultry research group, based initially at Werribee, was moved to Sydney in new facilities at North Ryde. At Badgery's Creek, south-west of Sydney, two zebu milking breeds, the Sindhi and Sahiwal imported from Pakistan, were crossed to Jerseys under the supervision of Bob Hayman. Geoff Grigg and Hymie Hoffman were moved to Sydney from Adelaide to establish molecular and developmental biology research.
Alex Reisner, who had worked on Paramecium , joined the Division, as did Peter Claringbold, who subsequently rose to the position of Chief of Computing Research. By the late s, Rendel had recruited additional molecular biologists, notably Hiro Sibatani and Stephen Fazekas de St Groth, as he had developed a firm conviction that the future of genetics research lay in molecular and developmental biology.
Rendel's leadership style was based on the principles of the Duke of Wellington — who believed in appointing the best people that he could find, and then not interfering with their decisions — as put into practice by Waddington. Martin , Chapter 2 gives a view of one case where this did not work, but within the Division it was generally highly successful. As CSIRO grew, its procedures became more formal some would say bureaucratic , especially in the early seventies, and Rendel had difficulties with the senior management of CSIRO because he refused to tolerate interference or calls to justify his decisions.
The Division was disbanded in , with the more traditional areas merged with the Division of Animal Physiology and the molecular and genetics research spun off as a separate unit, later the Division of Molecular Biology. This was unfortunate, and was based at the time on a report by Eric Underwood, who saw a need for geneticists and physiologists to spend more time talking to one another, but who saw no relevance of molecular biology to animal production research. Rendel remained with the newly formed Division of Animal Production, returning to the bench until his retirement in Initially, Rendel's laboratories were centred on the University of Sydney — a model of collocation that still works very well — with field stations both nearby at Badgery's Creek, at that time only an hour's drive west of Sydney, and far away at Gilruth Plains near Cunnamulla in south-western Queensland.
The mandate was the national benefit. In that great era when Australia recognised the need to expand its research effort, resources were made available to bring the basic science and its applications to sheep and poultry together, and new premises were opened on the CSIRO North Ryde campus in The poultry genetics unit was moved to North Ryde from Werribee in The new Division now included branch laboratories and field stations at Rockhampton tropical beef cattle , Armidale sheep , and Wollongbar tropical dairy cattle as well as those already mentioned.
The appointments Rendel made were diverse and remarkable. Some have already been discussed.
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We do not discuss them all, and we exclude ourselves. Alex Fraser elected FAA but later resigned on relocating permanently to the USA conducted many valuable fundamental experiments on pattern formation in such cases as bristle number in mice. He contributed powerfully to the discussion of any and all topics at seminar and in the tea room. His monograph with Short on the biology of the fleece was an important piece of work, but it was not taken up by the 'practical' geneticists led by Helen Newton Turner.
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The failure of most of the developmental biologists to engage directly in Merino fleece genetics and breeding was a background reason for the divergence in approach in the Division between those who wanted to apply basic quantitative genetics to fleece weight and fibre diameter to 'fine the national clip' and those who wanted a subtler but inevitably slower approach that required the interactions among the components of fleece weight to be experimentally and theoretically elucidated before fining the clip.
Bill Sobey, a personal friend and colleague, carried out significant work on rabbit fleas as vectors for myxomatosis. In , following the merger of Animal Genetics with Animal Physiology, he transferred to Wildlife Research to continue important work that was no longer in the production sphere. Peter Claringbold was a veterinarian turned computer scientist, not a particularly unusual transition at a time when no computer scientists per se were being trained. Before becoming Chief of CSIRO's newly established Division of Computing Research, he was one of many who contributed to the pioneering computerization of both breeding programmes and general record-keeping for the poultry and dairy breeding programmes.
He assisted Alex Fraser enormously in his early work on computer simulation of genetic systems. Turner, never to be confused with Helen Newton Turner, led the cattle- breeding work at Rockhampton after Rendel. He was a very clear thinker, did much important work on the nexus between adaptation and productivity in the tropics, and led the development of an internationally recognised tropical cattle research centre.
Turner was ably followed by John Vercoe. Both are examples of capable scientists who did not consider that good work had to be done in a metropolitan centre; without their kind, the cattle industry in northern Australia could not have become the success it is today, nor could there have been continuity in the more basic work on mechanisms of heat tolerance, tick resistance and other important traits.
Emeric Binet, part of the Hungarian diaspora that has so much enriched Australia's social, intellectual and business life since the Second World War, was a mathematician who had turned his hand to genetics. Unfortunately, brain damage suffered in a motor accident made it hard for him to concentrate on work, though the force of his intellect was undiminished. Characteristically, Rendel did not seek invalidity for Binet, believing that he could still contribute through discussion. This happened, but Binet's major contribution for many was as a source of legends, such as those to do with the consequences of damage to his thermoregulatory centre.
Emeric was but one of many mathematical geneticists appointed to the Division. Pre-eminent, of course, was Helen Newton Turner, whose role in the development of sheep-breeding research was pivotal and is well known in the industry. Helen very much ran her own group within Animal Genetics, ably assisted by many in her group. The most important of her colleagues, perhaps, were Arthur Dunlop and Sid Young. Complementing the growing strength of the Division in developing animal-breeding methodologies, Rendel's efforts to strengthen molecular and developmental biology, both in his Division and in Australia, resulted in the appointments of Grigg, Hoffman and Reisner, each of whom worked in various aspects of molecular and cellular biology.
Additional appointments were made in the mid-sixties. Hiro Sibatani joined Animal Genetics as a molecular biologist. Japanese, he was an extraordinarily talented yet slightly eccentric figure whom most of his colleagues loved. Strangewey—he seems different, but he falls in with his brother's ways. Aline glanced at herself in the mirror. She was just out of her mistress's range of vision, and she made a little grimace at her reflection. The second time he did not speak. He did not seem to see me. Louise finished her breakfast and strolled presently to the window.
She gave a little sigh of pleasure as she looked out. Louise heard nothing. She was gazing eagerly out of the casement-window. Immediately below was a grass-grown orchard which stretched upward, at a precipitous angle, toward a belt of freshly plowed field; beyond, a little chain of rocky hills, sheer overhead. The trees were pink and white with blossom; the petals lay about upon the ground like drifted snowflakes. Here and there yellow jonquils were growing among the long grass.
A waft of perfume stole into the room through the window which she had opened. I want to see whether it is really as beautiful as it looks. Aline dressed her mistress in silence. It was not until she had finished lacing her shoes that she spoke another word. Then, suddenly, she stopped short in the act of crossing the room. Her eyes had happened to fall upon the emblazoned genealogical record. A little exclamation escaped her. She swung round toward her mistress, and for once there was animation in her face. Don't you remember—". You spoke of the good fortune of some farmer in the north of England to whom a relative in Australia had left a great fortune—hundreds and thousands of pounds.
The name was Strangewey, the same as that. I remember it now. I remember it all perfectly now. I wonder whether it could possibly be either of these two men! Unbelievable, madame! Louise remained standing before the window. She was watching the blossom-laden boughs of one of the apple trees bending and swaying in the fresh morning breeze—watching the restless shadows which came and went upon the grass beneath. They are strange men, these two.
The young one is different now, but as he grows older he will be like his brother. He will live a very simple and honorable life. He will be—what is it they call it? When he dies, he will be buried up in that windy little churchyard, and people will come from a long way off to say how good he was. My hat, quickly, Aline! If I am not in that orchard in five minutes I shall be miserable! Louise found her way without difficulty across a cobbled yard, through a postern gate set in a red-brick wall, into the orchard.
Very slowly, and with her head turned upward toward the trees, she made her way toward the boundary wall. Once, with a little exclamation of pleasure, she drew down a bough of the soft, cool blossom and pressed it against her cheek. She stopped for a moment or two to examine the contents of a row of chicken-coops, and at every few steps she turned around to face the breeze which came sweeping across the moorland from the other side of the house.
Arrived at the farther end of the orchard, she came to a gate, against which she rested for a moment, leaning her arms upon the topmost bar. Before her was the little belt of plowed earth, the fresh, pungent odor of which was a new thing to her; a little way to the right, the rolling moorland, starred with clumps of gorse; in front, across the field on the other side of the gray stone wall, the rock-strewn hills. The sky—unusually blue it seemed to her, and dotted all over with little masses of fleecy, white clouds—seemed somehow lower and nearer; or was she, perhaps higher up? She lingered there, absolutely bewildered by the rapid growth in her brain and senses of what surely must be some newly kindled faculty of appreciation.
There was a beauty in the world which she had not felt before. She turned her head almost lazily at the sound of a man's voice.
She watched him as he came into sight up the steep rise. Against the empty background, he seemed to lose nothing of the size and strength that had impressed her on the previous night. He was bareheaded, and she noticed for the first time that his closely cropped fair hair was inclined to curl a little near the ears.
He walked in step with the plowman by his side, but without any of the laborer's mechanical plod—with a spring in his footsteps, indeed, as if his life and thoughts were full of joyous things. He was wearing black-and-white tweed clothes, a little shabby but well-fitting; breeches and gaiters; thick boots, plentifully caked now with mud.
He was pointing with his stick along the furrow, so absorbed in the instructions he was giving that he was almost opposite the gate before he was aware of her presence. He promptly abandoned his task and approached her. And such an awakening! He looked at her, a little puzzled. The glow upon her face and the sunlight upon her brown hair kept him silent. He was content to look at her and wonder. Does the sun always shine like this? Does the earth always smell as sweetly, and are your trees always in blossom? He turned around to follow the sweep of her eyes.
Something of the same glow seemed to rest for a moment upon his face. They stood together in a silence almost curiously protracted. Then the plowman passed again with his team of horses, and John called out some instructions to him. She followed him down to earth.
This way! She walked by his side, conscious every now and then of his frankly admiring eyes as he looked down at her. She herself felt all the joy of a woman of the world imbibing a new experience. She did not even glance toward the dismantled motor in the barn which they passed. Do you know," she went on, "I feel like a child being led through an undiscovered country, a land of real adventures.
Which way are we going, and what are we going to see? Tell me, please! As they ascended, the orchard and the long, low house on the other side seemed to lie almost at their feet. The road and the open moorland beyond, stretching to the encircling hills, came more clearly into sight with every backward glance. Louise paused at last, breathless. But perhaps you are tired? All the exercise I take, as a rule, is in Kensington Gardens; and look! The last few steps were, indeed, almost precipitous. Fragments of rock, protruding through the grass and bushes, served as steps.
John moved on a little ahead and pulled her easily up. Even the slight tightening of his fingers seemed to raise her from her feet. She looked at him wonderingly. You walk as lightly as the fairies who come out on midsummer night's eve and dance in circles around the gorse-bushes there. They were on a rough-made road now, which turned abruptly to the right a few yards ahead, skirting the side of a deep gorge. They took a few steps further, and Louise stopped short with a cry of wonder.
Around the abrupt corner an entirely new perspective was revealed—a little hamlet, built on a shoulder of the mountains; and on the right, below a steep descent, a wide and sunny valley. It was like a tiny world of its own, hidden in the bosom of the hills. There was a long line of farm-buildings, built of gray stone and roofed with red tiles; there were fifteen or twenty stacks; a quaint, white-washed house of considerable size, almost covered on the southward side with creepers; a row of cottages, and a gray-walled enclosure—stretching with its white tombstones to the very brink of the descent—in the midst of which was an ancient church, in ruins at the further end, partly rebuilt with the stones of the hillside.
Louise looked around her, silent with wonder. A couple of sheep-dogs had rushed out from the farmhouse and were fawning around her companion. In the background a gray-bearded shepherd, with Scottish plaid thrown over his shoulder, raised his hat. William Elwick there is a very real shepherd, I can assure you. He has sat on these hills for the last sixty-eight years. The coming and the fading of the stars, the spring days, the music of the winds in these hollow places, booming to him in the night-time! I want to talk to him.
May I? You see, he is pretending now that there is something wrong with the hill flock. You asked where the land was that we tilled. Now look down. Hold my arm if you feel giddy. She followed the wave of his ash stick. The valley sheer below them, and the lower hills, on both sides, were parceled out into fields, enclosed within stone walls, reminding her, from the height at which they stood, of nothing so much as the quilt upon her bed. We grow a great deal of corn in the dip there.
All the rest of the hillside, and the moorlands, of course, are fit for nothing but grazing; but there are eleven hundred acres down there from which we can raise almost anything we choose. Her eyes swept this strange tract of country backward and forward. She saw the men like specks in the fields, the cows grazing in the pasture like toy animals. Then she turned and looked at the neat row of stacks and the square of farm-buildings.
He swung open the wooden gate of the churchyard, by which they were standing. There was a row of graves on either side of the prim path. The hills parted suddenly as she stood there looking southward. Through the chasm she seemed to see very clearly the things beyond. Her own life, her own world, spread itself out—a world of easy triumphs, of throbbing emotions always swiftly ministered to, always leaving the same dull sensation of discontent; a world in which the pathways were broad and smooth, but in which the end seemed always the same; a world of receding beauties and mocking desires.
The faces of her friends were there—men and women, brilliant, her intellectual compeers, a little tired, offering always the same gifts, the same homage. Go on talking to me about yourself, please. Our clergyman comes from the village on the other side of that hill. He rides here every Sunday on a pony which we have to provide for him. Tell me," he asked, after a moment's hesitation, "are you married or single? She gave a little start. The abruptness of the question, the keen, steadfast gaze of his compelling eyes, seemed for a moment to paralyze both her nerves and her voice.
Again the hills rolled open, but this time it was her own life only that she saw, her own life, and one man's face which she seemed to see looking at her from some immeasurable distance, waiting, yet drawing her closer toward him, closer and closer till their hands met. She was terrified at this unexpected tumult of emotion. It was as if some one had suddenly drawn away one of the stones from the foundation of her life. She found herself repeating the words on the tombstone facing her:.
Her knees began to shake. There was a momentary darkness before her eyes. She felt for the tombstone and sat down. The churchyard gate was opened and closed noisily. They both glanced up. Stephen Strangewey was coming slowly toward them along the flinty path. Louise, suddenly herself again, rose briskly to her feet.
I really am not such a terrible person as he seems to think. John muttered a word or two of polite but unconvincing protest. They stood together awaiting his approach. Stephen had apparently lost none of his dourness of the previous night. He was dressed in gray homespun, with knickerbockers and stockings of great thickness. He wore a flannel shirt and collar and a black wisp of a tie. Underneath his battered felt hat his weather-beaten face seemed longer and grimmer than ever, his mouth more uncompromising.
As he looked toward Louise, there was no mistaking the slow dislike in his steely eyes. Louise, inspired to battle by the almost provocative hostility of her elder host, smiled sweetly upon him. A closer examination of our rough life up here might alter your views. After all, you know, even though I am a daughter of the cities, there is another point of view—ours. Can you not believe that the call which prompts men and women to do the things in life which are really worth while is heard as often amid the hubbub of the city as in the solitude of these austere hills?
Like to like, and each bird to his own nest. You would be as much out of place here with us, madam, as my brother and I on the pavements of your city. It is given to no one to be infallible. It is even possible that you may be wrong. They do not consist of one thing for one man, another for another. To whom comes the greater share of them—the dweller in the city, or you in your primitive and patriarchal life?
You rest your brains, you make the seasons feed you, you work enough to keep your muscles firm, and nature does the rest. She brings the food to your doors, and when your harvest is over your work is done. There are possibilities of rust here, Mr. How many of them live by really creative and honorable work? How many are there of polyglot race—Hebrews, Germans, foreigners of every type, preying upon one another, making false incomes which exist only on paper, living in false luxury, tasting false joys?
The sign-post of our lives must be our personal inclinations. Our inclinations—my brother's inclinations and mine—lead us, as they have led my people for hundreds of years, to seek the cleaner things in life and the simpler forms of happiness. If I do not have the pleasure, madam, of seeing you again, permit me to wish you farewell.
Are you, too, of his way of thinking? I do not think I could ever have been happy in any of the professions. I feel it hard to realize you in any of the ordinary walks of life. Still, you know, the greatest question of all remains unanswered. Are you content just to live and flourish and die? Are there no compelling obligations with which one is born? Do you never feel cramped—in your mind, I mean? Still, there is the fighting instinct, you know; the craving for action. Don't you feel that sometimes? They were leaving the churchyard now. She paused abruptly, pointing to a single grave in a part of the churchyard which seemed detached from the rest.
They are both buried there. For the second time that morning Louise was conscious of an unexpected upheaval of emotion. The charm of its simple austerity had perished. She moved quickly from John Strangewey's side. Before he could realize her intention, she had stepped over the low dividing wall and was on her knees by the side of the plain, neglected grave.
She tore out the spray of apple-blossom which she had thrust into the bosom of her gown, and placed it reverently at the head of the little mound. For a moment her eyes drooped and her lips moved—she herself scarcely knew whether it was in prayer. Then she turned and came slowly back to her companion.
Something had gone, too, from his charm. She saw in him now nothing but the coming dourness of his brother. Her heart was still heavy. She shivered a little. They commenced the steep descent in silence. Every now and then John held his companion by the arm to steady her somewhat uncertain footsteps. It was he at last who spoke. His tone woke her from her lethargy. She was a little surprised at its poignant, almost challenging note.
She chose, instead, a wandering life. She chose, further, to make it a disreputable one. She broke her mother's heart and soured her father's latter years. She brought into the world a nameless child. You judge only by what happens. You never look inside. That is why your justice is so different from a woman's. All that you have told me is very pitiful, but there is another view of the case which you should consider. Let us sit down upon this boulder for a few moments.
There is something that I should like to say to you before I go. They sat upon a ledge of rock. Below them was the house, with its walled garden and the blossom-laden orchard. Beyond stretched the moorland, brilliant with patches of yellow gorse, and the hills, blue and melting in the morning sunlight.
She may be very lonely, and she may care; and if she cares, it is so hard to refuse the man she loves. The very sweetness, the very generosity of a woman's nature prompts her to give, give, give all the time. I feel that you are not going to agree with me, and I do not wish to argue with you; but what I so passionately object to is the sweeping judgment you make—the sheep on one side and the goats on the other.
That is how man judges; God looks further. Every case is different. The law by which one should be judged may be poor justice for another. Sometimes an individual may suffer for the benefit of others. That is inevitable. Now I am going to ask you a question. Are you the John Strangewey who has recently had a fortune left to him? It was stated that I had never seen my Australian uncle, but as a matter of fact he has been over here three or four times.
President Thomas S. Monson
It was he who paid for my education at Harrow and Oxford. He detests the thought of any one of us going out of sight of our own hills. My uncle had the wander-fever. She leaned a little toward him. Her smile now was more evident, and there was something in her eyes which was almost like a challenge. You can move, if you will, in the big world. You can take your place in any society you choose, meet interesting people who have done things, learn everything that is new, do everything that is worth doing in life.
You can travel to the remote countries of the globe. You can become a politician, a philanthropist, or a sportsman. You can follow your tastes wherever they lead you, and—perhaps this is the most important thing of all—you can do everything upon a splendid scale. Supposing my life here satisfies me? Supposing I find all that I expect to find in life here on my own land, among my own hills?
What then? She looked at him with a curiosity which was almost passionate. Her lips were parted, her senses strained. The desire for travel is only half born in me. That may come—I cannot tell. I love the daily work here; I am fond of horses and dogs. I know every yard of land we own, and I know what it will produce. It interests me to try experiments—new crops, a new distribution of crops, new machinery sometimes, new methods of fertilizing. I love to watch the seasons come and reign and pass. I love to feel the wind and the sun, and even the rain.
All these things have become a sort of appetite to me. I am afraid," he wound up a little lamely, "that this is all very badly expressed, but the whole truth of it is, you see, that I am a man of simple and inherited tastes. I feel that my life is here, and I live it here and I love it. Why should I go out like a Don Quixote and search for vague adventures? You eat and drink, and physically you flourish, but part of you sleeps because it is shut away from the world of real things.
Don't you sometimes feel it in your very heart that life, as we were meant to live it, can only be lived among your fellow men? He looked upward, over his shoulder, at the little cluster of farm-buildings and cottages, and the gray stone church. There is a little cycle of life here, among our thirty or forty souls, which revolves around my brother and myself. You would think it stupid and humdrum, because the people are peasants; but I am not sure that you are right. Our young people fall in love and marry.
The joy of birth comes to our mothers, and the tragedy of death looms over us all. Some go out into the world, some choose to remain here. A passer-by may glance upward from the road at our little hamlet, and wonder what can ever happen in such an out-of-the-way corner. I think the answer is just what I have told you. Love and marriage, birth and death happen.
These things make life. Her curiosity now had become merged in an immense interest. She laid her fingers lightly upon his arm. I can understand their simple lives being as absorbing to them as ours are to us. I can imagine how, here among your hills, you can watch as a spectator a cycle of life which contains, as you have pointed out, every element of tragedy and happiness.
But you yourself? I am sure you are honest, I am sure you believe what you say, but will you remember what I am going to tell you? The time will come, before very long, when you will feel doubts. Something will whisper to you in your heart that after all you are not of the same clay as these simple folk—that there is a different mission in the world for a man like you than to play the part of feudal lord over a few peasants. John Strangewey, or you will grow like your brother here among your granite hills. He moved a little uneasily. All the time she was watching him. It seemed to her that she could read the thoughts which were stirring in his brain.
So it may be, but it is not wide enough or great enough. No one should be content with the things which he can reach. He should climb a little higher, and pluck the riper fruit. Some day you will feel the desire to climb. Something will come to you—in the night, perhaps, or on the bosom of that wind you love so much.
It may be a call of music, or it may be a more martial note. Promise me, will you, that when you feel the impulse you won't use all that obstinate will-power of yours to crush it? You will destroy the best part of yourself, if you do. You will give it a chance? She held out her hand with a little impulsive gesture. He took it in his own, and held it steadfastly. Along the narrow streak of road, from the southward, they both watched the rapid approach of a large motor-car. There were two servants upon the front seat and one passenger—a man—inside.
It swung into the level stretch beneath them, a fantasy of gray and silver in the reflected sunshine. Louise had been leaning forward, her head supported upon her hands. As the car slackened speed, she rose very slowly to her feet. They had started the descent, and she was walking in very leisurely fashion. John made no immediate reply.
The world had turned topsyturvy with him. Louise Maurel, and a great friend of the Prince of Seyre! He walked on mechanically until she turned and looked at him. His estates near here are systematically neglected. He is the worst landlord in the country, and the most unscrupulous. All I can say is that I would rather think of you—as something different. The prince, who had just been joined by Stephen, had descended from his car and was waiting in the road when Louise and John approached. He came a few paces forward to meet her, and held out both his hands.
What shall I say to this mishap which has robbed me of so many hours of your visit? I am too happy, though, to know that you have suffered no personal inconvenience. The prince bowed, and half held out his hand to Stephen. The latter, however appeared not to notice the movement. Strangewey and his brother to my lost guest. I fear," he went on regretfully, "that I do not seem very neighborly. I am not often at Raynham Castle, except in August and September. I find your northern air somewhat too severe for me. The prince shrugged his shoulders.
He was a man of medium height, slender, with a long and almost colorless face. His clothes and voice were perfectly English, although the latter was unusually slow and soft. At first sight there was no apparent evidence of his foreign birth. He turned once more toward Stephen. Simon, is a very excellent man, and I have every confidence in his discretion. My tenants here could scarcely feel toward me as they might have done if Raynham had come into my possession in the direct line.
However, this year, as it happens, I have made up my mind to spend more time here. My keepers tell me that after four bad seasons the prospects for grouse on my higher moors are excellent. I shall hope," he added, turning to John, "to have you join us often. I must confess that the only time I had ever heard your name, before the newspapers advertised your recent good fortune, was in connection with shooting.
They tell me that you are the best shot and the finest horseman in Cumberland. And now, dear lady," he went on, turning to Louise, "I am loath to lose another minute of my promised visit. I have taken the liberty of telling your maid to place your wraps in my car. We can reach Raynham in time for a late lunch. Your own car can follow us and bring your maid. For a moment Louise did not reply. Her eyebrows were contracted.
She had turned, and was gazing up the precipitous strip of moorland toward the gray-walled church. Then she glanced at John Strangewey, and her eyes seemed filled with the questioning of a child. John's unspoken response was prompt and unmistakable; and she smiled ever so slightly. She no longer thought him narrow and prejudiced, an unfair judge of things beyond his comprehension. He had helped her in a moment of trial. An idea had flashed between them, and she acted upon it with amazing promptitude.
As you know, mine was to have been only a brief stay at Raynham, and I fear now that even that is impossible. The prince drew a step nearer. Something of the calm suavity had suddenly gone from his manner. When he spoke, his measured words were full of appeal. It was to receive you for a few hours that I came from Paris and opened Raynham Castle.
You yourself shall decide the length of your stay, and a special train shall take you back to London the moment you give the word. In that way you will both save time and spare me—one of the greatest disappointments of my life! I wish to reach London either this evening or very early in the morning. The prince was holding himself in restraint with a visible effort. His eyes were fixed upon Louise's face, as if trying to read her thoughts.
You know how impatient he is, and all London is clamoring for his play. Night to him is just the same as day. I shall telegraph from Kendal the hour of my arrival. At least, then, you will permit me to drive you to Kendal? I gather from your chauffeur that your car, although temporarily repaired, is not altogether reliable. She answered him only after a slight hesitation.
For some reason or other, his proposition did not seem wholly welcome. Walk with me to the car.
Related Footsteps Of His Flock 1915
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