Faith Of Fools (Eald Cearo: On Wyrds Thread Book 1)

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Consequently, new links are created here among the disciplines in medieval studies, based on various combinations of these scholarly applications. Contributors provide new analyses of such difficult but rewarding fields as Old English metre and syntax, Beowulf, the origins and development of Standard English, the definitions of Old English words and their connotations, the styles and themes of Old English poems, Middle English poetry and prose, the post-medieval reception of medieval works, and the styles, themes, and sources of Old English poetry and prose.

Stanley Edited by M. Toswell and E. Tyler, the edited collection; individual contributions the contributors All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Includes bibliographical references and index. English philologyOld English, ca. English philologyMiddle English, Stanley, Eric Gerald.

Toswell, M. Tyler, E. Elizabeth M. Peter S. Rolf H. Mark S. Nicola F. James I. Corinne J. Pauline A. Stanley as teacher, supervisor, and mentor led in the first place to those students who had fallen under his aegis as Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon at the University of Oxford; in the second place, to the graduate students he taught while Professor at Yale University; and in the third place, to scholars who have come into contact with him all over the world and who have reaped the benefit of his counsel and his care for young academics.

There are now no kings or emperors or generous princes such as once there were, when they surpassed all their peers in glory, and lived in the most lordly splendour. All this chivalry has perished. Its joys are departed. A weaker race lingers on and possesses this world, living by toil. Glory lies in the dust.

All that is noble on earth grows aged and fades away — just as every man now does throughout the world. Old age comes upon him, his face grows pallid ; grey-haired he grieves in the knowledge that his friends of old days,. While his spirit is ebbing his bodily frame cannot relish delicacies, nor suffer pain, nor raise the hand, nor think with the brain. Though he will spread with gold the grave of his own brother, and bury with the dead in treasures of various kinds what he wishes to have with him, yet gold, which he has hidden while he is still alive here, will not be able to help a soul which is sinful, in place of the fear of God.

Great is the terror of God, for the earth will be transformed. Dol hip 86 pe him his diyhten ne ondrsedep: cymetS him se dea 9 un? Eadig biC se pe ea]7mod leofaB : cymetS him seo ar of heofonum. Wyrd hip swid! Thorpe, mod ms. Klaeber, om. GreiD, swire ms. Foolish is he who fears not his Lord : death will come to him when he is unprepared.

Blessed is he who lives in humility : mercy will come to him from Heaven. God will stablish his heart for him, because he has faith in his might. A man must control a fierce temper and keep it within bounds. He must be true to his pledges, unblemished in his life. Every man should use moderation in cherishing love towards his friend and hatred towards his foe Fate is stronger, and God mightier than any man can imagine. Let us consider where our home lies and meditate further as to how we may reach it ; and let us also further strive that we may attain to eternal bliss, where life is to be found in the h ve of the Lord, and joy in Heaven.

Thanks be to the holy Prince of glory, the everlasting Lord, that he has shown us favour for all time 1 Amen. The misery of this solitary abode, together with, uncertainty as to what has become of the lord, combine to produce a mood alternating between passionate longing' and despair. Thorpe sug- gested that minre sylfre siff 1. The latter, however, appears to have recently changed his view; cf.

Kennedy, BiMiothek der angelsdchsischen Poesie, Gdttin- gen, , Vol. Kurzgefaeste angelsdchsische GrammaHk, Kassel, , p. It may be observed here that this third view is open to 'some rather serious objections. In the whole of Beowulf there is only one passage as long as this poem which is without any proper name. This passage 1. Hicketier suggests that both the Wife's Complaint and the Husband's Message may be Biddles, not, however, independent of one another.

Trautmann believes that the Wife's Complaint and the Husband's Message are works of the same author, and indeed that originally they formed parts of the same poem. Imelmann regards the first Biddle of the Exeter Book, the Wife's Complaint and the Husband's Message as a trilogy, and attempts to connect them with the Odoacer story. He reads the Bunic letters in the Husband's Message, Wiiloker, Grundr. Lawrence ib. No one will suggest that the Wamderer or the Seafarer is to be connected with any cycles of legend.

In the poem itself there are several points which are not quite clear. Why has the speaker been ordered to live under an oak, and what is the nature of her abode there? Again, there is a curious difference of opinion as to the number of principal characters in the story. Several scholars hold that the man whose character is sketched in 1. It is chiefly through this hypothesis that attempts have been made to bring the poem into connection with various cycles of story. The hypothesis however involves some serious difficulties. Again, according to this hypothesis, the commands mentioned in Lit Strassbnrg, ff p.

In this case there will be no need to assume the existence of a third character. It is perhaps an ambitious attempt to portray excited feelings which causes the difficulty of the poem. The asyndetic and not altogether logical sequence of thought, the absence of metrical form in 1. Jhere is no need, I think, to assume any serious corruption of the text. Haefde ic uhtceare hwaer min leodfruma londes waere. Heht mec mon wunian on wuda bearwe, under actreo in J;am eortJscraefe. Ful oft mec her wraj? Thqrpe, Seal ms. I will tell what hardships I have endured since I grew up, both recently and long ago, but never more than now.

I have suffered ceaseless torment from my misfortunes. To begin with, my lord went away from his people here over the restless waves. In the morning twilight I have wondered anxiously in what part of the world my lord could be. Then I set out on my way, friendless and homeless, to seek for support in my sore need. My lord in his cruelty ordered me to be brought here. In this place I had no dear or loyal friends. Truly my heart is troubled since I havg" found a man fully suited to me, oppressed by ill fortune and troubled in heart — disguising his feelings under an unruffled demeanour while intending a deed of cruelty.

Now all that is passed away, and our love is as though it had never been. I have been ordered to make my dwelling in a forest grove in this cavern beneath an oak-tree. This is an underground dwelling made long ago, and J am altogether heart-broken. It is a joyless dwelling. DreogeS se min wine micle modceare ; he gemon to oft wynlicran wic. Wa biS J?


Gonybeare, sittam mb. Lovers there are on earth living in affection and resting in their beds, while all alone before the dawn I pace the round of these caverns beneath the oak-tree. Here I shall have to sit through the long summer day ; here I shall have to weep over my misfortunes and my many hardships. The young man can never cease to be troubled in spirit. Bitter must be the reflections of his heart; but he must also have an unruffled demeanour, though along with it grief of soul and a host of constant anxieties — whether all the joy that the world can give him be to his hand, or whether it be that, hunted by hostility throughout the length and breadth of a far country, my lover is sitting beneath some rampart of rock exposed to tempest and frost — my dear one broken- hearted, in a gloomy dwelling with water flowing round him.

Great misery of heart is that dear one of mine suffering; very often he remembers a happier abode. Sad is the lot of those who have to wait with an aching heart for them whom they love. It would seem at first sight that the scribe of the Exeter Book himself recognised four distinct pieces between the end of the piece which Thorpe called Maxims fol. These four pieces will be referred to in the following passages as units A, B, C, and D respec- tively, for the sake of convenience.

He regarded the first three as Riddles, the fourth beginning with the words Hwset pec ponne, etc. It occurs also on fol. It is to be observed, however, that another instance occurs in D 1. Alterthum, Vol. CD, now recognised. Blackburn bases his theory mainly on four points, viz. The object speaking is plainly a letter; 3 what follows in the MS. B, C, D are read consecutively the result is clearly a unity.

Mod, Lang. Notes, Vol. He gives the text of Biddle no. He adheres to the old view that B is a riddle, and on grounds of technique etc. The position appears to me to be this. The evidence which Tupper adduces for the popularity of the Arundo Riddle is for the most part late, and therefore has little bearing on our problem ; but it is not to be denied that the phrasing of the riddle shows a curious resemblance to the A. Again, the description at the beginning of the latter seems more appropriate to a reed than to any kind of tree which could serve for a message stick; and the same may perhaps be said of 1.

On the whole the evidence does not seem to me to be sufficiently decisive to admit of a positive answer to the questions that have been raised. The view put forward by Blackburn is not in itself improbable. The question as to whether this poem is connected with the Wife's Complaint has been much debated. There is no indication that the scribe of the Exeter Book recognised any connection between the two poems. They are separated by seven folios. In both cases the man has left his wife or sweetheart suddenly and fled across the sea.

In both cases there is a reference to some trouble which has caused his precipitate flight. In the Wife's Complaint this cause is not made clear. In the Husha,nd's MessagSy however, it is explained as a vendetta. Brandi, Geschichte der altmglischen Literatur Strassbnrg, , p. Sweet, EiE. This interpretation is based on the assumption that Even this interpretation, however, does not necessarily preclude the possibility of a connection between the two poems ; for the passage in question, like the suggestion in 1.

Litt, Leipzig, , p. Introduction to the Wife's Complaint, p. Wife's Complaint, 1. The correspondence however may very well be due to the conventional nature of Anglo-Saxon poetic diction. Introduction to the Wanderer, p. This, after all, is an assumption which cannot be proved.

It is, however, of the nature of con- jecture, even though, like the suggestions of Qrein and Blackburn, containing nothing inherently improbable; and in my opinion it is wisest to suspend judgment on this question also, so long as the origin and history of both poems remain wholly obscure. Many attempts have been made to interpret the runic passage at the close of the poem. One line of enquiry has led to the suggestion that the runes make up a name, or the names of the characters referred to in the story.

None of the suggested interpretations are satisfactory. But the cyre-aJS is again a mere suggestion, involving os in a distorted syntax which casts grave doubts on its value. Hicketier, Anglia, Vol. On the other hand five runes are hardly enough in themselves to spell an Anglo-Saxon proper name.

I have printed only what I have been able to read in the MS. Letters supplied from the latter, and incomplete portions of letters big eguough to be identified in either MS. In the damaged portions of the text the lines printed in small type correspond to the lines of the MS. For the greater part of these passages I have not attempted a translation. Kluge, AngeUachsisches Leselnich Halle, , p. Philol, Vol. The value of the transcript seems to me to lie less in any positive additions to the text than in the provision of a check upon proposed restorations.

Ic gehatan dear 5 p 9 Bt pu J? B From this point to 1. In the ms. Very few human beings were there who looked upon my dwelling-place in that solitary waste, but each dawn the dark wave of the sea em- braced and played around me. Little did I think that I should ever at any time in my life speak and Kold discourse over the mead, mouthless as I am. It is a great marvel, wonderTul to the minds of those who are ignorant of such things — how the point of a knife and the right hand of a knight — his ingenuity and the point together — laid violent hands upon me I dare promise that thou wilt find noble loyalty in him.

Ne maeg him. Thorpe, Imam ua. The outUne of n is traceable on the vellum. He who inscribed this rod has bidden me ask thee, lady, to remember in thy own heart the vows to which thou and he often pledged yourselves in former days when ye were still able to live at home in the ban- queting halls, dwelling in the same land and indulging your affection. He was driven by vendetta from his glorious land. TJhere- after let no living man deter thee from thy journey, nor hinder thy voyage. Seat thyself in a bark and then southward from here over the ocean- path thou wilt find where thy princely lover is awaiting thee.

No greater joy in the world can he conceive of — so he told me — than that God Almighty should grant that hence- forth ye shall be able [to dwell] together Now the man has overcome his troubles. Thorpe, gesprmconn ms. If he shall gain thee, in addition to the vows made by you both in the past I would nominate S, R, EA, W, and D all together to declare on oath that as long as he lives he will observe the covenant and bond of affection to which ye frequently pledged yourselves in the past.

A word or a letter can be restored here and there from? In the opening lines he dwells on the scene of desolation before him. Then 1. When it again becomes legible the poet is calling up a picture of the splendours of a wealthy court and all the riches which it had contained — a description which is interrupted in The result of fKe whole is to leave on the mind of the reader a contrast between the present condition of the place and its former splendour as seen through Saxon eyes.

It also resembles the same part of the Wanderer in being highly rhetorical and studied in style. S above. Hioketier, Anglia, Vol. The majority of early scholars, e. The refefences to stone walls, together with other details burg- stede, torras, wig steal, etc. The reference to bapu,. Mat in 1. XXX f. On the other hand, so far as I am aware, there is no evidence of extensive Roman buildings at any of the hot springs in this country except at Bath.

Gesch, der angelsdchs, Litt Leipzig, , p. I have not ventured to attempt a translation of these about this period, though the entry itself can hardly be regarded as historical. The foundation charter Birch, Cart, Sax.

The Keys of Middle-earth

The absence of any reference to the abbey — the present structure stands almost on the top of the springs — would seem ratW to suggest that the poem was composed before its foundation ; but it would be hazardous to lay much weight on this inference. For references to Roman Bath, see H. Taylor, The Roman Baths of Bath, etc. Bath, ; L. Wilson, Bath ; F. Wyrde gebrsecon ; burgstede burston, brosnaS enta geweorc. Beorbt waeron burgrseced, burnsele monige, 15 beab borngestreon, beresweg micel, meodobeall monig mandreama full, 25 0 7? Cnmgon walo wide, cwoman wpldagas, swylt eall fornom secgrof wera.

Betend crungon, 30 bergds to brusan. Oonybeare; gefratweS ms. The fortifications have given way, the buildings raised by giants are crumbling. The roofs have collapsed; the towers are in ruins There is rime on the mortar. The walls are rent and broken away, and have fallen, under- mined by age. Red of hue and hoary with lichen this wall has outlasted kingdom after kingdom, standing unmoved by storms.

The lofty arch has fallen. Resolute in spirit he marvellously clamped the foundations of the walls with ties. There were splendid palaces, and many halls with water flowing through them ; a wealth of gables towered aloft. Loud was the clamour of the troops ; many were the banqueting halls, full of the joys of life — until all was shattered by mighty Fate. The dead lay on all sides. Their defences became waste places, their fortifications crumbled ; the troops who should have repaired them lay dead on the earth.

And so these courts lie desolate, and the framework of the dome with its red arches sheds its tiles where of old many a warrior, joyous hearted and radiant with gold, shone resplendent in the harness of 56 THE RUIN 35 wlonc and wingal wighyrstum scan : seah on sine, on sylfor, on searogimmas, on ead, on aeht, on eorcanstan, 30 on fas beorhtan burg, bradan rices.

Stanhofu stodan ; stream hate wearp 4o widan wylme. Only the upper half of sevon in wseron is legible in E. So also Schipper in E. He gazed upon the treasure, the silver, the precious stones, upon wealth, riches and pearls, upon this splendid citadel of a broad domain. There stood courts of stone, and a stream gushed forth in rippling floods of hot water. The wall enfolded within its bright bosom the whole place which contained the hot flood of the baths 59 VI. Of these the oldest is the Parker ms. This portion of the MS. Of the remaining MSS. IV D from c. This ms.

As the basis for the following text, MS. A has been chosen, with the necessary corrections from the other MSS. The expedition was met by an English army under 1 Cf. Plummer himself would apparently date this the eighth hand somewhat earlier. E, etc. Historia Runelmemis Eccleiiae Bolls Series , cap. The most interesting accounts of the expedition which have come down to us are those in the Irish Chronicles.

But the King, i. Amlaibh [Anlaf] escaped with a few. On the other side, however, a great multitude of Saxons fell. But Aethelstan, King of the Saxons, was enriched with a great victory. Hodgkin, Political History of Englandy Vol. Ambitious attempts are also to be found in the transactions of various societies, e. Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society, Vol.

In view of the name Weondun e given by Symeon it has been suggested that this battle was identical with the one at Vinheidr, described in Egils Saga, oh. Hennessy Dublin, He was king of Alba i. Scotland north of the Clyde and Forth from c. The original is lost. Skene in Chronicles of the Piets and Scots Edinburgh, , p. Skene, op, cit,, p.

A, sub ann, The identity of the Anlaf mentioned in the poem has given rise to a good deal of discussion. Among the Latin historians of the twelfth century we find a curious discrepancy. Sihtric Sigtryggr I became king of Dublin c. He had succeeded Rsegnald Rognvaldr — his brother or cousin — in York c. Later we find two kings called Anlaf reigning in succession? One Anlaf was the son of Guthfrith, the other of Sihtric. The former died c. This is clearly the Anlaf 1 Cf.

Thorpe, Yol. D, sub ann. Chron, ex Chron. The identification with the latter cannot be traced with any certainty beyond the Norman historians who lived nearly two centuries after the event. Malmesbury, it is true, appears to have had an early Latin authority for this reign ; but his inaccuracy and want of judgment are in general so palpable that he cannot be trusted unless he is evidently reproducing the words of his original. Godfrey [i. Guthfrith], lord of the foreigners, came at Lammas from Ath Cliath and carried off as prisoners Amlaeibh Ceanncairech from Loch Ribh Lough Ree ,and the foreigners who were with him after breaking their ships.

A, sub arm, E, sub arm, , Its nearest affinities are clearly with the poem on the Battle of Maldon. Both would seem to have been composed not long after the events with which they deal. Both use the metrical form and the con- ventional terminology of early heroic poetry. In other respects there is a marked contrast between the two pieces. On the other hand, the poet has been carried away by the feeling of triumph. In spite of these features the poem is by no means a simple unsophisticated song of victory. Hall, Oxford, , i, Epithets are piled one upon another in a way which renders translation into modern English very difficult ; and this difficulty is increased by a superabundance of adverbial phrases, e.

It will be seen that the poem contains a number of forms ivhich deviate from the standard literary West Saxon language of the time, e. Some of these forms are peculiar to the Parker text, and we might be inclined at first sight to attribute them to the scribe, especially in view of the fact that he has made some obvious mistakes; but this is probably not the true explanation.

Such irregular forms do not occur in the preceding and following annals in the Parker text, and there are enough of them in the texts of the poem contained in the other three MSS. We may notice also in this con- nection the occurrence of words of Scandinavian origin, e. These con- siderations, as far as they go, would seem rather to point to the Danelagh as the home of the poet — a supposition which is hardly disproved by the national character of his sympathies.

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B, C, D ; he eardes A ; heordes W. W; para ifeBfC; para pe D. With their hammered blades the sons of Edward clove the serried bucklers, and hacked the shields of linden wood, for with them it was an instinct inherent in their family always to defend their country, their treasure, and their homes in battle against every enemy. The foemen were laid low, the warriors of the Scots and the host from the ships fell doomed. The field was flowing with the blood of men from the time when the sun, that glorious star, the bright candle of God, the Lord eternal, rose on high above the horizon in the morning hours — until that noble being sank to its rest.

There lay many a warrior, men of the North, tom by the spear, shot over their shields; and many a Scotsman too lay lifeless — they had had their fill of battle. Fiercely they cut down the fugitives from behind with swords sharpened on the grindstone. Fife laegun on ]? Swilce J? Gewitan him pn. C, D; nyde W. B, D; cnea ren A. Jlod D. Jlod om, D. Constantinus B, C, D. B, 0, D; fer- A.

There the prince of the Northmen with but a small following was com- pelled by irresistible force to flee to the prow of his ship. No cause had he to exult in that clash of arms. He was bereaved of his kins- men and friends, who had been cut down in the struggle and lay lifeless on the field of battle. On the place of slaughter he left his young son mangled by the blows he had received in the conflict. No need had the hoary knight — the old scoundrel — to exult in the clash of swords. As little cause had Anlaf : no need had they to gloat — they and the remnants of their hosts — over their superiority in martial deeds upon the field of battle, when the standards came into collision, when spear met spear and man encountered man and blade was crossed with blade — as they competed with the sons of Edward on the field of slaughter.

The two brothers also, the King and the Prince of the English, both together returned to their country, the land of Wessex, triumphing in their victory. Behind them they left a heap of carnage to be shared by the black raven with its dusky plumage and hooked beak, and the dun-coated white-tailed eagle — a feast to be enjoyed by the hungry hawks of battle, and by that grey beast, the wolf of the forest.

Never in this island before now, so W as the books of our ancient historians tell us, has an army been put to greater slaughter at the edge of the sword, since the time when the Angles and Saxons made their way hither from the east over the wide seas, invading Britain, when warriors eager for glory, proud forgers of battle, overcame the Welsh and won for themselves a country. One consequence of this is that the great bulk of Norse poetry has come down to us in a fragmentary state.

Very often we have only single strophes of what were probably poems of considerable length.


Sometimes again we are left in doubt as to whether the passages quoted are complete poems or merely extracts. The remains of Norse poetry of the ninth and tenth cen- turies are preserved chiefly in historical works of the thirteenth century, most of which were written in Iceland. Perhaps the most interesting of these is the Hmaskringla of Snorri Sturluson d.

The same author also wrote an account of the diction of poetry Skdldskaparmal in his Prose Edda, tod here also a very large number of quotations from early poets are preserved. At one time the number of vellum MSS. They were written for the most part between the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries ; not a few dated from the middle of the thirteenth century and were thus almost contemporary with the time when historical writing was at its best.

Unfortunately a very large number of these MSS. Fortunately, owing to the zeal dis- played by Scandinavian scholars during that period, these are numerous, and for the most part evidently written with great care. It is the practice of Scandinavian scholars to call the paper MSS. It will be convenient here to give a short account of the MSS.

B, of which a small fragment remains, appears to have been much earlier, and was probably written about It is known to have come to Copenhagen from Bergen some time between and Upon the paper MSS. They contain also the Battle of Hafs- fjord and the Hdkonarmdl str. This work is preserved in an imperfect form in a number of paper mss. The Flateyjarbdk FI. Previously to that date it is known to have been in the possession of a family who had dwelt on the Island of Flatey in BreiCifjorSr since the fourteenth century.

Copenhagen, Vols. In general the text of the poems preserved in these mss. It is to be remembered however that the former poems were not written down until some two or three centuries after their composition, and that the language in which they are preserved is that which was current in Iceland or in Norway in the thirteenth century. This frequently spoils the metre of the poems ; in particular Norwegian MSS. Unger Christiania, — , Vol. It has been the custom to base the printed editions on a collation of the surviving vellums and of these paper MSS.

As the orthography of the various mss. I have followed, except in the two poems above mentioned, the orthography employed in the poems contained in tfie sagas published by SigurSur Kristjdnsson at Reykjavik, as I think this system is probably the one most familiar to English readers. It should be observed that the language of the Fagrskinnay which is Norwegian of c. The Fagrskinna does not mark accents, while the usage of the eaflier Icelandic mss.

Harold is believed to have been bom c. In the course of the next twelve years he subdued the whole of Norway, which had previously contained a considerable number of kingdoms.

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The former was specially honoured by the king, and entrusted by him with the upbringing of one of his sons. Another work of the same poet Is the Haustlong, which celebrates various adventures of the gods with the giants. In the Fagrskinna, ch. He was the eldest of them and had been the poet of Halfdan the Black, the father of King Harold. Next to him sat Thorbjom Hornklofi, and next again Olvir Hniifa. Next to the last named a seat was assigned to BarSr. To atone for it they had to undertake a dangerous mission to Sweden. Portions of at least two of Homklofi's poems have come down to us, in addition to some detached strophes attributed to him in the Prose Edda.

The second is the piece given below. With the exception of two strophes it is preserved only in the Fagrskinna. No name is given to this poem by any of the early authorities. SigurCsson, Snorra Edda, Vol. Strophes 10 — 16 are partly in LjoSahdttr, For this combina- tion we may compare the Hdkonarmdl and the Eiriksmdl. In strophes 8 and 15 we have FornyrSislag — the metre used in most of the narrative poems of the Edda and practically identical with that of the Anglo-Saxon poems.

The setting of the poem is somewhat peculiar. It is not at all certain that the poem is complete. Strophes 1 — 6, which clearly form the beginning of a poem, are quoted by the Fagrskinna on pp. Some strophes may have been omitted between the quotations and possibly also at the end. In Skdldskaparmdly ch. Our hearts were gladdened by such doings. Jdnsson, Fagrskinna Gopenbagen, ISl below. The second one occurs also in ib, Vol. They are as follows: 1 Annat skulu J?

These strophes, like the last, are in the Mdlahdttr, and the second of them is attributed to Homklofi by the Heims- kringla, together with the Flateyjarbok, Vol. S, Vol. This does not however appear to have been the view of Njgaard who in Udvalg af den Norrdne Literatur Bergen, , p. It is in the same metre Mdlahdttr as the Hrafnsmdl and is generally assumed to be by the same author; but the external evidence gives little support to this view.

Of the three works in which it is preserved, two, the Fagrskinna and the FlateyjarbSk, attribute it to ThjdSolfr.

But no one doubts that the Qlymdrd'pa, as we have it, is incomplete ; we cannot tell what it contained originally. In point of fact the references to naval battles — especially in Norway — which it contains are scarcely of such a character as to enable us to identify them with certainty. THE HRAPNSMAL 81 to me that the amount of historical poetry of this period which has come down to us is scarcely sufficient to prove that the poets never dealt with the same events on more than one occasion.

Negative evidence should I think be used with special caution, more especially when we are con- sidering a poem like the Glymdrdpa which is in the nature of a retrospect covering the events of a number of years. I do not mean of course to deny the possibility that the two pieces given here belonged to the same poem. But I think that the reasons hitherto given for combining them are insufficient. The author of the Fagrskinna had clearly no suspicion that the two poems were connected. The text of the poem as given below is based on the paper copies of MS.

B as printed by Finnur Jdnsson in his edition of the Fagrskinna Copenhagen, j. The readings of the surviving copies of A have sometimes been adopted in preference however, and the principal variant readings of all these paper mss. A 1 — 2, B 1 — 2 have been indicated in footnotes. Where A 1 — 2 and B 1 — 2 are in agree- ment respectively the letters A, B have been used without figures. Jdasson, Den Oldn. B; IgargaA. B ; bjuggud A. A; annarB. I will tell of the words which I heard spoken by a maiden fair and golden haired as she held converse with a raven.

With white throaii and sparkling eyes she greeted the skull picker of Hymir as he sat on a jutting ledge of rock. Whence are ye come with bloody beak at the dawning of day? Torn flesh is hanging from your talons, and a reek of carrion comes from your mouths. I doubt not that ye have passed the night amid a scene of carnage. He has under his command deep ships with their reddened stripes and crimson shields, tarred oars and foam-besprinkled awnings. Even in his youth he showed no inclination for the fireside and indoor life, the warm bower or pillows stuffed with down.

They are enriched with money and with splendid swords, with the metal of Hiinaland and with girls from the East. Eager are they to leap up and bend their oars, to break the oar loops and split the tholes, to chum up the waters with mighty strokes, as I can aver, at the command of their prince. They redden their spears when they come to the fight, and then they act all in a body. I doubt not that it is only upon men of tried valour who fight without flinching that the wise king will rely on such occasions.

There are others too whose task it is to carry burning chips through the fire. The skipping fellows have their blazing hoods tucked under their belts. The only kings who retained their independence were those of the south-west — HorCaland, Rogaland, AgSir, and Thelamork, corresponding approximately to the present provinces of South Bergenhuus and Christiansand, and these in alarm formed a confederacy against him.

In Harold proceeded from Trondhjem southwards, and encountered the allied forces in the Hafsfjord near Stavanger. Several accounts of the battle have been preserved. Among these we may mention specially those contained in Egils Saga, ch. In the Heimsknngla Kjotvi is called king and Thdrir is said to be his son. Thus it is stated that the fleets met nflf JatJarr in HafsQord. The question of the date of the poem is to some extent bound up with the question as to the relationship between it and the Hrafnsmdl.

If the place had previously been a residence of the kings of Rogaland this would be natural enough, and the references in the poem would then gain in significance. The poem on the battle is preserved in several different works — the Fagrskinna, pp. The text given below is based in the main on Kringla cf. Unger, Christiania, F, 2 hrattstliga FI. A fleet came from the east, with gaping figure-heads and carved beaks — impelled by desire for battle. The king brought out his ocean steeds when he had a prospect of battle. There was a clashing of shields ere Haklangr fell. He used the island as a shield.

Those who were wounded thrust them- selves under the benches, arching their backs and pushing their heads down into the keel. In the following year Eric had to leave the country. He is said to have first made his way to the Orkneys, where he received a friendly reception from the sons of Torf Einarr. The Norse tradition regarding the life of Eric after his departure from Norway is not entirely to be trusted.

English records know nothing of his presence in Northumbria under Aethelstan, though as the annals of the time are very meagre, their silence is not conclusive. Saxon Chronicle, sub ann. Thereupon the Northumbrians submitted. The Anlaf mentioned by Symeon of Durham is doubtless the Olaf who is said in the Norse authorities to have killed Eric, and we have no reason for doubting that he was the famous Olaf Cuaranl But the affair in which Eric lost his life would seem to have been an ambush rather than a battle.

Perhaps on resigning the throne he had been given a safe- conduct by Earl Osulf of Bamborough, who had subsequently betrayed him to his enemy. The scene of the massacre was evidently on the Roman road from York to Carlisle, not far from Kirkby Stephen. In the Fagrskinnay ch. Subsequently the Queen with her sons made her way to Denmark, where they received protection from Harold Blue-tooth, and whence they made firequent attempts to wrest the kingdom of Norway from Haakon.

The poem is obviously incomplete. It may have been composed in Orkney shortly after the news of the disaster became known ; at all events it can hardly be many years later, since Eyvindr Finnsson's Hdkonarmdl cf. The metre of the poem is the LjdtSahdttr except in str. In the MSS. The first five lines are preserved also in the Skdldskaparmdl, ch. Jdnsson Copenhagen, , pp. E A 2 ; a added above the line in A. The r has been added later in A. Munch and Unger ; JBirikr ms. I was awakening the einherjar, and bidding them rise up and cover the benches and cleanse the beakers — I was bidding the Valkyries bring wine as if a prince was coming.

I have hope of some noble heroes from the world ; so my heart is glad. Arise quickly and go to meet the prince. If it be Eric, invite him in! I have now con- fident hope that it is he. Enter our hall, wise prince! One thing I would ask thee : What heroes attend thee from the roar of battle?

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The circumstances of his birth and death are curiously picturesque. While still a child, Haakon was sent to England where he was brought up as a Christian by Aethelstan. He reigned prosperously for over twenty-five years, and was an exceedingly popular king, though his efforts to introduce Christianity proved a failure. On the last occasion, as King Haakon was being entertained at Fitje in the Island of StorS Stordb , news was brought that a mighty fleet was at hand. A fierce fight now took place.

The fray was very fierce around him. He set sail the same night for his house AlreksstaOir, but soon grew exhausted from loss of blood, and asked to be put ashore. Yet Eyvindr is no mechanical copier of other poets. There is a difference of tone between the Eiriksmdl and the Hdkonarmdl ; and though the former is incomplete, it is not likely that the Hdkonarmdl is indebted to it for its spirit of reflection and note of regret for the things that have passed away. Especially is this noticeable in the last four strophes of the poem. HoUander, New Tork, , pp.

Ill, f. There are moreover several points of detail in which the Hdkonarmdl differs from that portion of the EiHksrml which has come down to us. In the latter it is Sigmundr who questions Othin as to why he has robbed Eric of victory. In the former the question is put by Haakon himself and strikes a querulous note.

He does not appear to trust the gods. The Eiriksmdl is a vivid picture of the triumphal entry of Eric into ValhSll. In the Hdkonarmdl the note of triumph is sounded in a minor key, and the reader is almost more conscious of the personality of Eyvindr than of Haakon himself. The latter is used in strophes 1 and 2, and from strophe 9 3 to the end of the poem, while the Mdlahdttr is used for the description of the battle in strophes 3 — 8.

The whole poem is preserved in the Heimskringla K, J, F , and strophes 1 — 7 and 19 — 21 also in the Fagrskinna cf. Holmrygi J 1. Deadly shafts were descending and the dart was quivering. The battle had now begun. A brave force of Northmen had the generous prince. In helmet glittering with gold the joyous prince stood and sported with the sons of the host. The resounding steel clashed on the skulls of warriors.

A tumult arose in the island as the king reddened the bright serried shields with the blood of warriors. VArum p 6 verBir gagns frA goBum. Munch and Unger ; rothnarK. Jdnsson; hellz K, F; hellzt J 1. Munch and Unger ; grina K, F; gr! The halberds stooped to draw the life of men. The blood gushed forth upon the swords like the sea breaking upon a headland ; a torrent of gore was shed upon the shores of Storth. Thoughtful was their mien as they sat on their steeds, with helmets upon their heads, holding their shields before them.

Su heilan koma rA5 dll ok regin. We are afraid of his displeasure. Foe of Earls, thou hast eight brothers in our abode. Ill XI. To accomplish this end, she sent her son to SigurSr, Earl of Orkney, and to BrdCir, a Viking chief coasting off the Isle of Man, bidding him offer any terms to gain their assistance. Taking her at her word Sigtryggr promised his mother in marriage to each of them without informing the other, and thus obtained their aid. There is no reason for questioning the truth of this story ; but it is to be noted that according to Irish authorities it was Brian who took the offensive, and an attack was no doubt expected from him.

The Irish forces came up on Palm Sunday, but the battle did not take place till the Friday. According to Njdk Saga, ch. Njdls Saga, oh. There is nothing irreconcilable in the two accounts. And the combat of that pair was the first [of the battle]. And it will be one of the wonders of the day of judgment to relate the description of this tremendous onsets.. It appeared to the people of Ath Cliath Dublin who were watching them from their battlements, that not more numerous would be the sheaves floating over a great company reaping a field of oats ; even though two or three battalions were working at it, than the hair flying wdth the wind from them, cut away by the heavy gleaming axes, and by bright flaming swords.

Whereupon the son of Amhlaibh i. According to Njdls Saga King Sigtryggr commanded one wing of the host; but the Irish annals are unanimous in declaring that he watched the battle with his wife from the fortifications of Dublin, and this is no doubt correct.

After a watch kept by Brian's attendant which vividly recalls the watch kept by Sister Anne in the Bluebeard story, BrotJir was seen approaching with two attendants. He went to the dyngja and looked in through one of the windows and saw that there were women inside and they had set up a loom. DorruBr now turned away from the window and went home.

And they mounted their steeds, and rode six to the south and the other six to the north. Its importance however is literary rather than historical. Sigtryggr continued to reign over Dublin for many years.

Text Soc. NjdU Sagat ch. Originally it would seem to have meant a room for weaving, as a rule partly or wholly underground ; of. Accord- ing to F. The majority of scholars, including S. So far as I am aware, however, no scholar appears to have stated the grounds for his view in any detail. The poem was known, perhaps in ballad form, in Orkney in the latter part of the eighteenth century. But so soon as he had proceeded a little way, they exclaimed they knew it very well in the original, and had often sung it to himself when he asked them for an old Norse song ; they called it The Enchantresses!

It is not impossible that the poem may have come from Iceland to Orkney at some time during the Middle Ages or possibly even later ; but as it stands, the external evidence, taken in connection with the reference to Caithness in the saga, certainly points to the north of Scotland rather than to Iceland. The evidence contained in the poem itself, however, presents certain difficulties. It has been mentioned that it contains no proper names except the word Irar. The historical informa- tion which it gives may be summed up as follows : 1 a great battle is taking place, which concerns a young king for whose safety and success the spell is being sung str.

The Icelanders who were present in the battle had gone there in the following of Earl SigurSr, not of Sigtryggr ; nor was the latter a man of any great distinction, although he reigned for more than half a century. But other difficulties still remain. According to the Irish authorities, which are both earlier and fuller than the Norse, Sigtryggr took no part in the battle, so that the working of the spell for his safety would seem to be superfluous. Why too should the youth of the king be so frequently mentioned?

His father died in and he himself became king in , so that he cannot have been far short of forty at the time of the battle. It is not impossible, however, that it was originally concerned with some earlier king, e. These elements are in all probability derived from the lost Brjdm Saga cf. We may compare the account in the Three Fragments of Annals ed. The Earl dreamed that he asked him for news from that quarter. The man recited this verse. Fierce I know was the encounter of those warriors. SigurtSr fell in the crash of spears, but the blood was already pouring from his wounds.

Brian fell but won the victory. Similar terms are not unknown elsewhere in Norse and in other Teutonic languages, e. HelgahoiJ'a Htmdingsbana, i, str. To ensure a durable fabric, care must be taken in simple weaving, as in the ordinary darning stitch, that the weft thread is never placed under the same thread of warp in two consecutive passages.

A beam skaft or, later, two or even several beams, rested on wooden pegs skaftillir in the middle of the hleinar. To this skaft are attached the ends of a number of threads. At the unattached ends are loops through each of which is threaded every alternate warp thread. The backward and forward movement of the skaft thus serves to decussate the warp threads in much the same way as the heilds of a modem horizontal hand loom. Naturally the shed, or space between the warp threads, is widened and work facilitated by the addition of a second skaft.

The work of the reed in the modern hand loom seems to hagen, — , p. Barlow, History and Principles of Weaving London, , p. Smith, Wayte and Marindin, London, — , s.

  1. Jewish Albuquerque: 1860-1960 (Images of America);
  2. Anglo Saxon Verse Book.
  3. The Thread of A Thousand Miles!
  4. Further references may be made to K. II, p. Sundt, Folkevennen for , p.

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