Design of Observational Studies (Springer Series in Statistics)

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Stat Med. Methodological issues arising from systematic reviews of the evidence of safety of vaccines. AHRQ methods for effective health care. In: Quality of reporting in systematic reviews of implantable medical devices. Meta-analysis: recent developments in quantitative methods for literature reviews. Annu Rev Psychol. More than the sum of its parts: meta-analysis and its potential to discover sources of heterogeneity in psychosomatic medicine. Psychosom Med.

A process for systematically reviewing the literature: providing the research evidence for public health nursing interventions. Worldviews Evid-Based Nurs. Systematic review and network meta-analysis in health technology assessment. J Med Assoc Thail.


Systematic reviews and meta-analysis for the surgeon scientist. Br J Surg. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses in coloproctology: interpretation and potential pitfalls. Color Dis. Limited search strategies were effective in finding relevant nonrandomized studies. Poor reporting and inadequate searches were apparent in systematic reviews of adverse effects. Thornton A, Lee P.

Observational Studies (Springer Series in Statistics)

Publication bias in meta-analysis: its causes and consequences. Searching for observational studies: what does citation tracking add to PubMed? A case study in depression and coronary heart disease. Searching one or two databases was insufficient for meta-analysis of observational studies. Comprehensive evaluations of the adverse effects of drugs: importance of appropriate study selection and data sources. Ther Adv Drug Saf. Issues relating to study design and risk of bias when including non-randomized studies in systematic reviews on the effects of interventions.

Practical application of nonrandomized research to patient care: a case study of nesiritide. How to develop a search strategy. Accessed 13 Feb Exploring issues in the conduct of website searching and other online sources for systematic reviews: how can we be systematic? Syst Rev. A systematic method for search term selection in systematic reviews. Wong O, Raabe GK. Application of meta-analysis in reviewing occupational cohort studies.

Occup Environ Med. Issues relating to selective reporting when including non-randomized studies in systematic reviews on the effects of healthcare interventions. Methodological guidance for systematic reivews of observational epidemiological studies reporting prevalence and cumulative incidence data. Public Health. Systematic review data extraction: cross-sectional study showed that experience did not increase accuracy.

Issues relating to confounding and meta-analysis when including non-randomized studies in systematic reviews on the effects of interventions. Estimating a relative risk across sparse case-control and follow-up studies: a method for meta-analysis. Heterogeneity in meta-analysis of data from epidemiologic studies: a commentary. Am J Epidemiol. Meta-analysis of rare and adverse event data. Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res. Martin DO, Austin H. An exact method for meta-analysis of case-control and follow-up studies. Combined analysis of matched and unmatched case-control studies: comparison of risk estimates from different studies.

Transformations of summary statistics as input in meta-analysis for linear dose-response models on a logarithmic scale: a methodology developed within EURRECA. Verde PE, Ohmann C. Combining randomized and nonrandomized evidence in clinical research: a review of methods and applications. GRADE guidelines: 3. Rating the quality of evidence. Greenland S. Invited commentary: a critical look at some popular meta-analytic methods. Development of a quality assessment tool for systematic reviews of observational studies QATSO of HIV prevalence in men having sex with men and associated risk behaviours.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol. Obstacles and opportunities in meta-analysis of genetic association studies. Genet Med. Ioannidis JP. Int J Epidemiol. Systematic reviews synthesized evidence without consistent quality assessment of primary studies examining epidemiology of chronic diseases. Tools for assessing quality and susceptibility to bias in observational studies in epidemiology: a systematic review and annotated bibliography. Systems to rate the strength of scientific evidence. Evid Rep Technol Assess Summ. Adjustment of meta-analyses on the basis of quality scores should be abandoned.

GRADE guidelines: 4. Rating the quality of evidence - study limitations risk of bias. Practicalities of using a modified version of the Cochrane collaboration risk of bias tool for randomised and non-randomised study designs applied in a health technology assessment setting. GRADE guidelines: 5. Rating the quality of evidence -publication bias. Davey Smith G, Egger M.

Unresolved issues and future developments. Egger M, Smith GD.

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Observational Studies / Edition 2

The example of electronic fetal heart rate monitoring EFM. Controversy of oral contraceptives and risk of rheumatoid arthritis: meta-analysis of conflicting studies and review of conflicting meta-analyses with special emphasis on analysis of heterogeneity. Sources of heterogeneity in the meta-analysis of observational studies: the example of SIDS and sleeping position. Abrams K, Jones DR. Meta-analysis and the synthesis of evidence.

Doria AS. Meta-analysis and structured literature review in radiology. Acad Radiol. Evaluation of old and new tests of heterogeneity in epidemiologic meta-analysis. Practice of systematic reviews. Pooling of results from observational studies. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. GRADE guidelines: 7. Rating the quality of evidence - inconsistency. Systematic reviews on neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders linked to pesticide exposure: methodological features and impact on risk assessment.

Environ Int. Weeks DL. The regression effect as a neglected source of bias in nonrandomized intervention trials and systematic reviews of observational studies. Eval Health Prof.

  • Design of Observational Studies.
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Combining risk estimates from observational studies with different exposure cutpoints: a meta-analysis on body mass index and diabetes type 2. Salanti G, Ioannidis JP. Synthesis of observational studies should consider credibility ceilings. On combining dose-response data from epidemiological studies by meta-analysis. A proposed method of bias adjustment for meta-analyses of published observational studies. Meta-analytic approaches to dose-response relationships, with application in studies of lung cancer and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.

The importance of adjusting for potential confounders in Bayesian hierarchical models synthesising evidence from randomised and non-randomised studies: an application comparing treatments for abdominal aortic aneurysms. How should meta-regression analyses be undertaken and interpreted? A comparison of statistical methods for meta-analysis.

Hierarchical models in generalized synthesis of evidence: an example based on studies of breast cancer screening. Fixed vs random effects meta-analysis in rare event studies: the rosiglitazone link with myocardial infarction and cardiac death. Download references. We extend our thanks to Sharon Gardner and Suetonia Palmer of the University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand, for their help in screening titles and abstracts for eligibility.

All authors participated in summarizing the results. MM and PS wrote the first draft of the paper and all authors contributed to the final draft. All primary publications included in this review are in the public domain. Data about search results and screening are available on request to the corresponding author. Correspondence to Pippa Scott.

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Reprints and Permissions. Search all BMC articles Search. Abstract Background Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies are frequently performed, but no widely accepted guidance is available at present. Methods We searched online databases and websites and contacted experts in the field to locate potentially eligible articles. Results The searches identified articles of which 93 were eligible. Conclusion There is a need for sound methodological guidance on how to conduct systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies, which critically considers areas in which there are conflicting recommendations.

Open Peer Review reports. Table 1 Methodological key items for systematic reviews or meta-analyses of observational studies Full size table. Results Identification of eligible articles The searches identified articles. Flow chart of article selection. Full size image.

An observational study is an empiric investigation of effects caused by treatments when randomized experimentation is unethical or infeasible. Observational studies are common in most fields that study the effects of treatments on people, including medicine, economics, epidemiology, education, psychology, political science and sociology. The quality and strength of evidence provided by an observational study is determined largely by its design. Design of Observational Studies is both an introduction to statistical inference in observational studies and a detailed discussion of the principles that guide the design of observational studies.

Design of Observational Studies is divided into four parts. Chapters 2, 3, and 5 of Part I cover concisely, in about one hundred pages, many of the ideas discussed in Rosenbaum's Observational Studies also published by Springer but in a less technical fashion. Part II discusses the practical aspects of using propensity scores and other tools to create a matched comparison that balances many covariates. Part II includes a chapter on matching in R. In Part III, the concept of design sensitivity is used to appraise the relative ability of competing designs to distinguish treatment effects from biases due to unmeasured covariates.

Part IV discusses planning the analysis of an observational study, with particular reference to Sir Ronald Fisher's striking advice for observational studies, "make your theories elaborate.

The second edition of his book, Observational Studies , was published by Springer in Here at Walmart. Your email address will never be sold or distributed to a third party for any reason. Due to the high volume of feedback, we are unable to respond to individual comments. Sorry, but we can't respond to individual comments. Recent searches Clear All. Update Location. If you want NextDay, we can save the other items for later. Europe PMC requires Javascript to function effectively. Recent Activity. Comparing emergency department mortality across different levels of trauma care nontrauma centers, level I and II centers is important in evaluating regionalized care.

First, we conducted optimal pair matching between the treatment group nontrauma centers and the first control group level I trauma centers ; second, we conducted optimal pair matching between the nontrauma centers and the second control group level II trauma centers ; the final step was to link the two sets of matched pairs by the common treatment subjects to form matched triplets. We then implemented a sensitivity analysis with three treatment arms, Lu's imputation based method, to assess the impact due to potential unmeasured confounding.

There was no difference between being treated in level I or II trauma centers. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the positive association between being treated at level I or II trauma centers and the reduced odds of mortality would remain present even in the presence of strong unmeasured confounding. The snippet could not be located in the article text.

Design of Observational Studies -

This may be because the snippet appears in a figure legend, contains special characters or spans different sections of the article. Author manuscript; available in PMC Jun PMID: Wheeler , a, b and Huiyun Xiang a, b, c. Krista K. Copyright notice. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Epidemiology. Abstract Comparing emergency department mortality across different levels of trauma care non-trauma centers, Level I and Level II centers is important in evaluating regionalized care.

Keywords: Propensity score matching, matching on multiple groups, sensitivity analysis, trauma, ED mortality. The procedures of triplet matching and outcome analysis Optimal triplet matching presents a computational problem that cannot be readily solved. Sensitivity analysis Rosenbaum proposed use of conventional sensitivity analysis for observational studies with two treatment arms, that is, evaluating the potential change of study conclusions due to a hypothetical unmeasured confounder.

RESULTS Matching results To maintain the profile of the patients treated in the treatment group non-trauma centers , the treatment group needs to be the smallest to ensure there was one control patient for each treated subject.

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  5. Table 1A. Balance checking before and after matching, first subsample, H1. Open in a separate window. Outcome analysis. Table 2. Original sample Matched sample Logistic regression N No. Level I trauma centers I b 0. Level I trauma centers b 0. Sensitivity analysis The sensitivity analyses focused on H1, because in the subsample H1 the relationship between treatment and outcome was weaker indicated by OR closer to 1 than in subsample H2.

    Fig 1. Fig 2. Balance checking before and after matching, second subsample, H2. Acknowledgements: Thank Jin Peng for preparing the dataset. Footnotes Conflicts of interest The authors have no conflicts of interest to report. Evaluation of a mature trauma system. Ann Surg ; 6 —83; discussion —5. A national evaluation of the effect of trauma-center care on mortality. N Engl J Med ; 4 — Am J Emerg Med Undertriage of major trauma patients in the US emergency departments.

    Am J Emerg Med ; 32 9 — Biometrika ; 70 1 — Rubin DB. J Am Stat Assoc ; 74 — Matched Sampling for Causal Effects , ;— Campbell D. Artifact and control. In: Rosenthal R, Rosnow R, eds. Artifact in behavioral research. Rosenbaum PR. The role of a second control group in an observational study. Stat Sci ; 2 3 — Imbens GW. The role of the propensity score in estimating dose-response functions. Biometrika ; 87 3 — Matching by propensity score in cohort studies with three treatment groups.

    Epidemiology ; 24 3 —9. Lu B, Rosenbaum PR. Optimal pair matching with two control groups. J Comput Graph Stat ; 13 2 — On principles for modeling propensity scores in medical research. Pharmacoepidem Dr S ; 13 12 — Rosenbaum P Observational Studies. New York, NY: Springer, Hansen BB. Optmatch: Flexible, optimal matching for observational studies. R News ; 7 — Kuhn HW. The Hungarian method for assignment problem. Naval Res Logist Quart ; 2 — Bertsekas DP. A new algorithm for the assignment problem. Math Program ; 21 — Pierskalla WP.

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    Mth120 Section 1.2 Observational Studies versus Designed Experiments

    Stuart EA. Stat Sci ; 25 1 :1— Covariance adjustment in randomized experiments and observational studies. Stat Sci ; 17 3 — Version 9.

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