Cairos Fortress on a Mountain


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Should war be deemed necessary, von Schlieffen saw it as a two-front war. Following the defeat of France, the entire German army would then face the second enemy. A Review by Brian Williams The battle of Stalingrad has always been a fascinating battle for me to study.

The German Army was still steam-rolling over the steppes of the Ukraine and seemingly unstoppable. But, unbeknownst to them, they had overstretched themselves to their ultimate breaking point. The rationale was if only they could take this last city on the western bank of the Volga, they could work on solidifying their front and move north and east. But, that determination cost the destruction of the German 6th Army, the surrounding Axis allied armies and resulted in the ultimate retreat of the entire German army. Jonathan Bastable has written a masterful book — which could possibly one of my most favorite first-hand WWII account books in my library.

It contains material that has never been published before and offers an incredible insight into the battle.


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It's a book that once you start reading, you won't be able to put down. The march has since gone down as one of the most storied and controversial undertakings of the Civil War and arouses an almost mythical stature for its followers. By Robert Shawlinski and Vernon Yates Throughout the centuries, the European continent has hosted many wars of conflict, laying waste to its countryside, and killing thousands of its citizens.

These outbreaks of violence came about over religion, power, and petty disagreements in wars lasting over one-hundred years in some cases. Even though the human suffering was horrific during these battles, warfare was conducted in an almost elementary approach with strategy as an afterthought. This approach begins to change with the founding and successful expansion of the Prussian Empire across central Europe.

The Prussians brought new methods and techniques to the art of warfare through its professional application of strategy as a science and an art. The Prussian Empire during the war with the French was controlled by the then Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck even the Emperor of Prussia referred to Bismarck due to the power arrangements of the empire.

The aim of this paper is to determine how South Africans commemorate their participation in World War I, with specific reference to the battle of Delville Wood and the sinking of SS Mendi.

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Thereafter, it will be determined how the battle of Delville Wood and the sinking of the SS Mendi were commemorated historically. Lastly, the paper will explore how both these events are presently commemorated in South Africa. By Edward J. Langer From the beginning of time man has been in constant conflict with his fellow man. War, death and destruction sometimes seem the norm and peace the exception. During the 19th century into the beginning of the 20th century up to World War One, there were many wars, large and small: wars of aggression, wars of independence, civil wars, border wars and wars of imperialistic expansion.

This book falls under the category of popular, as opposed to academic history, and provides an example of why military history in general, and popular military history in particular, is viewed with distain in the discipline. While this may be objectionable to those whose interest lies in military history, the view in academic circles exists nonetheless. This book is written for a wide audience that knows little about World War I, Gallipoli, or history at all. Reading the reviews on Amazon. While the first person accounts provide an interesting perspective, for those who have studied World War I in general, and Gallipoli in particular, it provides little that is new.

Rommel would make his name in France by living out that old maxim of war. His career and legend would begin to soar in North Africa when he arrived in March of Against incredible odds and harsh conditions, Rommel would prove again and again that an enemy can never be allowed to rest. However, he was not the first to demonstrate that maxim to be true.

He was one of those veterans who, for reasons of his own, never spoke of his military experiences unless asked a direct question concerning his service Therefore the only information immediately available to me was the sketchy memories of family members During my work life, which included USAF service, employment with various companies and operating my own businesses, I could never seem to devote the time needed to fill in the blanks Following retirement I was able to begin research starting with picking the brains of family members including my Mom A Review by Bob Seals The human cost of war has always been staggering.

Our most recent conflicts, whether described as an all-encompassing Global War on Terror, or the seemingly more politically correct Overseas Contingency Operations, are no exception to this truth. Of all services, the U. Army has paid the heaviest price since with almost 42, active, guard and reserve soldiers, killed or wounded while serving overseas, according to Department of Defense figures. Amidst all this blood and carnage of war, some individuals arise who are seemingly able to overcome all the pain and horror that combat inflicts upon them.

Ivan Castro is one such man. It is an examination of the practical aspects of intelligence and spying in history and world affairs.

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Hughes-Wilson is an effective writer; however, he is also verbally merciless. He has no politically correct sensibilities, and his penchant is to spare no one. The result is a strong treatment of the nature of intelligence and espionage, the second oldest profession as currently practiced, world-wide, by approximately intelligence agencies Pun, Troops armed with breech-loading infantry arms and artillery, primitive machine guns, and ironclad ships, early balloons, and trench warfare in the Civil War are cited as evidence.

The use of railroads, steam ships and riverboats, and telegraph are said to have affected strategy. New mass armies of volunteers and emphasis on industrial capacity influenced battles and campaigns. The status of civilians as legitimate targets of armies and strategy may be the most significant aspect making the American Civil War the first modern and total of the new period of war, so the argument goes.

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The human cost of war has always been staggering. One such youth so influenced by the sport was an Army cadet who played, advocated and remained a fan of baseball his entire life, General of the Army Douglas MacArthur. As a young man in the latter years of the nineteenth, and early years of the twentieth century, MacArthur played varsity level baseball in high school and at the United States Military Academy at West Point. Basket 0. Tip: All of your saved places can be found here in My Trips.

Log in to get trip updates and message other travellers. Profile Join. Log in Join. Skopje Fortress Kale. Review of Skopje Fortress Kale. Date of experience: August See all reviews. Ways to Experience Skopje Fortress Kale. Quick View. More Info. Walking Tour In Skopje. Shop Tickets And Tours.

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Shop Now. Reviews Write a review. Filter reviews. Traveller rating. Excellent Very good Average Poor Terrible Traveller type. Time of year. Language All languages. All languages. English Turkish Some of these inner palaces were on different levels, but each of them apparently followed the same layout as the first one: a central qa'a courtyard with two iwans, one of which gave a view onto the city.

The palace's location was just south of the current site of the Mosque of Muhammad Ali, but only limited remains of its lower levels and foundations can still be seen today, including a set of massive stone corbels along the walls of the Citadel at this point. Lastly, al-Nasir's other most notable contribution, and the only major structure of his reign still preserved at the Citadel, was the Mosque of al-Nasir , also situated in the Southern Enclosure. This was built in on the site of an earlier Ayyubid main mosque which he demolished.

Al-Nasir renovated his mosque again in The Burji Mamluk period saw little construction in the Citadel by comparison with the earlier Mamluk period. The private harem courtyard in the southeastern corner of the Southern Enclosure, known as the hosh , became increasingly used to build new reception halls and other structures with slightly more public functions. The Citadel was neglected during the Ottoman period and many Mamluk structures fell into ruin, although some of Citadel walls were rebuilt or extended in the 16thth centuries.

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The first mosque built in the Citadel after the Mamluk period was the Mosque of Sulayman Pasha in the Northern Enclosure, built by the Ottoman governor in for use by the Janissaries. It's not clear when walls were first built around it, though they were likely already enclosed in Mamluk times.

It is possible that Ahmad Katkhuda merely renovated an existing early Burji Mamluk mosque and added the present-day Ottoman-style minaret to it. Muhammad Ali was a pasha of Albanian origin who was appointed by the Ottoman sultan in to restore order after the French occupation of Egypt but who subsequently established himself as de facto independent ruler of the country.

He consolidated power through a famous and violent coup in which eliminated the remaining Mamluk class that still formed the country's elites. He invited them to a celebration banquet in the Citadel, and as they were leaving and passing along the road leading from the upper Citadel to Bab al-Azab, regiments of his Albanian gunmen opened fire from above and massacred all of them.

Cairo Citadel

However, it also represents Muhammad Ali's efforts to erase symbols of the Mamluk dynasty that he replaced. Many of the former Mamluk structures, including the Great Iwan and the Ablaq Palace of al-Nasir Muhammad, were demolished to make way for his new mosque and its renovated surroundings.

Muhammad Ali himself was eventually buried in the mosque. Another obvious change that Muhammad Ali enacted pertained to the uses of the Citadel's northern and southern enclosures: during the Mamluk period the Southern Enclosure was the royal residential area and the Northern Enclosure was mostly military, but Muhammad Ali built his Harem Palace which now houses the National Military Museum in the Northern Enclosure, erasing the old functional division between the two sections of the Citadel.

Notably, he rebuilt the Bab al-Qulla gate and the surrounding wall which separated the Northern and Southern enclosures from each other, giving it its current look. The gate's form today once again emulates the appearance of Bab al-Futuh but introduces some Turkish elements. The Citadel eventually ceased to act as the residence of Egypt's ruler after Khedive Isma'il Muhammad Ali's son and successor moved the court to the new 'Abdin Palace in downtown Cairo in For many years up to the late 20th century, the Citadel was closed to the public and used as a military garrison and base; at first by the British occupation army, and then, after , by the Egyptian military.

It is now a major tourist site for both Egyptians and foreigners alike. His chief eunuch and confidant, Qaraqush, who oversaw construction of the Citadel, was also responsible for digging the well. The well is considered a masterpiece of medieval engineering and still exists today. The upper part has a wider shaft which is surrounded by a long spiral staircase, separated from the main shaft only by a thin wall of rock. For this reason, the well is also known as the Spiral Well Bir al-Halazon.

At the bottom of the upper section, two oxen turned a waterwheel that brought the water up from the bottom of the well, while another waterwheel at the top of the well, also powered by oxen, brought the water up the rest of the way. During the reign of al-Nasir Muhammad , the Well of Joseph was insufficient to produce enough water for the numerous animals and humans then living in the Citadel.

To increase the volume of water, al-Nasir renovated an Ayyubid aqueduct system probably originally completed by al-Kamil that consisted of a number of water wheels on the Nile which raised water to an octagonal tower built by his predecessor al-Ashraf Khalil , from which the water was then transported along the Ayyubid city wall to the base of the Citadel. From the foot of the Citadel, the water was then carried up to the palaces via another system of waterwheels. The mosque was built between and , although not completed until the reign of Said Pasha in It is located in the Southern Enclosure and is open to the public today.

His body was transferred here from Hawsh al-Basha in Built in , during the early Bahri Mamluk period [14] , as the royal mosque of the Citadel where the sultans of Cairo performed their Friday prayers, today this hypostyle mosque is still similar to how it looked in the though many repairs have been made and only some of its original decoration has been restored. There have also been attempts to restore the light-blue color of the ceiling.

It is located in the Southern Enclosure and is open to the public. Built in , it was first of the Citadel's Ottoman-style mosques and is one of the few structures in Cairo closely resembling the "classical" Ottoman style of the 16th century. Qasta's tomb, dated to CE, still exists in the mosque today. This lesser-known mosque is situated right behind the main western gate, Bab al-'Azab.

Both are named after the Ottoman military regiments known as 'Azaban or Azaps who were housed in this part of the Citadel during the Ottoman period.

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