Cognitive Lingusitics in Practice, issn — ; v. Verspoor, Marjolijn. P C dc22 isbn 90 2 Eur. John Benjamins Publishing Co. Lexicology 25 2. This approach to the study of language is known as the cognitive perspective. The cognitive perspective also holds that language is part of a cognitive system which comprises perception, emotions, categorization, abstraction processes, and reasoning.
Thus the study of language, in a sense, becomes the study of the way we express and exchange ideas and thoughts. One of the great assets of this new understanding of language and linguistics is that its foundations and most theoretical constructs are so solid that they are still valid after a quarter of a century. The evolution within cognitive linguistics rather tends to go in depth: scholars reveal ever deeper insights into the nature and functioning of language and its relation to cognition, culture, and communities.
It was originally planned that this introduction should be accompanied by a second part, covering interdisciplinary areas such as language acquisition, language processing, applied linguistics and language learning, sociolinguistics, discourse study, cultural studies, language and ideology, linguistic anthropolo- gy, etc.
For an overview we refer to the forthcoming Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics, edited by Geeraerts and Cuyckens. This book is part of a more ambitious project comprising introductions in eight other languages: Dutch, French, German, Greek, Italian, Korean, Polish, and Spanish. The authorship of this Introduction was also multilingual and multicultural. Each chapter was written by one or more original authors. The editors reworked the chapters to varying degrees, from slight to complete adaptions, in order to keep the book consistent in style and coherent in contents.
Another rich source for important changes, especially in Chapter 10, were the remarks by Ulrike Claudi and her colleagues at Cologne University, Germany. We owe them all our deepest gratitude. The language counselling was carried out by Jane Oehlert Sevenoaks, England. The drawings were the work of Tito Inchaurralde Barcelona, Spain. They all deserve our sincere thanks for their skilful and conscientious work. This new edition has not only been reformatted, corrected, and updated, but has also been improved in many details; particularly Chapter 10 has been rethought and reformulated.
The question mark in front of an expression means that its acceptability is dubious?? First it will look at language as a system of communi- cation. Like all communication systems, language makes use of signs. Semiotics distinguishes between three types of signs: indices, icons and symbols. Human language stands out among sign systems in using all three structuring principles, but especially symbolic signs. The conceptual world consists, amongst others, of conceptual categories, which are far richer than the system of linguistic signs.
A great many, but by no means all, of the conceptual categories give rise to linguistic categories. Linguistic categories not only enable us to communicate, but also impose a certain way of understanding the world. We can achieve this in many ways. We express our surprise by raising our eyebrows, we can draw the outline of a woman by using our hands, and we can express our thoughts by speaking. An iconic sign is similar to the thing it represents.
The road sign that warns drivers to look out for children near a school pictures two or three children crossing the road on a zebra crossing. The image is of course only vaguely similar to reality since, at a particular moment, only one or any number of children may be running across the street, but its general meaning is very clear nevertheless. The idea of danger caused by animals on roads is also pictured by iconic signs such as images of cows, deer, geese, horses, toads, etc.
Pictures of lorries, cars, tractors, cycles, cycling paths, rivers, bridges, falling rocks, bends in the road, hairpin bends, etc. Unlike indexical and iconic signs, a symbolic sign, or symbol, does not have a natural link between the form and the thing represented, but only has a conventional link. The link between its form and meaning is purely conventional.
Thus, there is no natural link at all between the word form surprise and its meaning. The two halves of the ring are inseparable, just like the form of a word and its meaning. Animals have very sophisticated sign systems, too. These systems of communication are almost exclusively indexical. For example, a honey bee can indexically communicate to another bee about nectar sources that are in its proximity, and signalling the quantity of the nectar occurs by iconic knocking on a surface: the more knocking, the more nectar. An experiment in Pisa has shown that bees were not able to inform other bees at the bottom of the tower of Pisa about the nectar source that had been put at the top.
There is a hierarchy of abstraction amongst the three types of signs. Most commercial products are too prosaic to be attractive in themselves; they need to be associated with more attractive surroundings. For example, Marlboro cigarettes are indexically related to the adventurous life of the American cowboy. Iconic signs are more complex in that their understanding requires the recognition of similarity. The iconic link of similarity needs to be consciously established by the observer.
The image may be fairly similar as with ikons, which are pictures of a holy person venerated in the Russian or Greek Orthodox Church, or they may be fairly abstract as in stylized pictures of men and women on toilet doors, or of cars or planes in road signs. Icons are probably not found in the animal kingdom.
People have more communicative needs than pointing to things and replicating things; we also want to talk about things which are more abstract in nature such as events in the past or future, objects which are distant from us, hopes about peace, etc. This can only be achieved by means of symbols, which humans all over the world have created for the purpose of communicating all possible thoughts.
The most elaborate system of symbolic signs is natural language in all its forms: The most universal form is spoken language; at a certain phase of civilization and intellectual development a written form of language develops; and people who are deaf have developed a sign language, which is largely based on conventional- ized links between gestures and meanings.
Table 1. For example, we strongly associate a piece of art with the artist and, hence, can say things like I am curious to see the Turners. Symbolic signs allow the human mind to go beyond the limitations of contiguity and similarity and establish symbolic links between any form and any meaning. Thus, a rose can stand for love and the owl for wisdom. These three principles of indexi- cality, iconicity and symbolicity underlie the structuring of language, which will be the subject of the next section.
Chapter 1. Almost all language is symbolic as the relationship between words and their meanings is not based on contiguity or similarity except perhaps in words for animal sounds , but on convention. However, within this complex system of symbols, called language, we can also recognize indexal, iconic and symbolic principles. We consider ourselves to be at the centre of the universe, and everything around us is seen from our point of view.
This egocentric view of the world also shows in our use of language. When we speak, our position in space and time serves as the reference point for the location of other entities in space and time. The place where we are is referred to as here, and the time when we speak is now. Spaces other than ours are described as there or, when they are even further from us, as over there.
Similarly, times other than our present time are referred to as then, which may be either past time as in Then they got married or future time as in Then they will have children. Words such as here, there, now, then, today, tomorrow, this, that, come and go as well as the personal pronouns I, you and we are described as deictic expressions. Deictic expres- sions depend for their interpretation on the situation in which they are used. Far bigger things than oneself may be located with respect to the speaking ego. In saying The Empire State Building is right in front of me, we pretend that the person speaking, rather than the skyscraper, is the stable reference point of this world.
This is what guides on sight-seeing buses do all the time when they say for example As we approach St. The ego furthermore serves as the deictic centre for locating things with respect to other things. Thus, when the speaker says, The bicycle is behind the tree, he draws an imaginary line from himself to the tree and locates the bicycle behind the tree, as shown in Figure 1a. When the speaker moves to the other side of the street, his deictic orientation changes too and the bicycle is now in front of the tree, as shown in Figure 1b.
Just as we speak of our bodily front and back, top and bottom, left and right side we conceive of shirts, chairs, cars, houses and other artefacts as having intrinsic fronts and backs, tops and bottoms and left and right sides. At a more general level, we transpose our egocentric orientation onto the human being as such.
Our anthropocen- tric perspective of the world follows from the fact that we are foremost interest- ed in humans like ourselves: Their actions, their thoughts, their experiences, their possessions, their movements, etc. We, as human beings, always occupy a privileged position in the description of events. The examples with a human subject in 1 illustrate the normal way of expressing events or states. She knows the poem by heart. I lost my contact lenses. It is only with special focus on an object that a non-human entity is preferred over a human entity and becomes the subject of the sentence.
The human being is given special prominence in other areas of grammar, too. The following sentences illustrate a less conspicuous instance of anthropo- centricity: 2 a. His house got broken into. The house got broken into. The house got burnt down. What determines our judgement of acceptability of the get-passive is the degree of human involvement in the event. Iconicity may manifest itself in three sub-principles, i. The principle of sequential order is a phenomenon of both temporal events and the linear arrangement of elements in a linguistic construction. Here reversing the order would produce nonsense.
But in other contexts this is perfectly possible. Virginia got married and had a baby. Virginia had a baby and got married. The conjunction and itself does not tell us anything about the sequence of events; it is only due to the arrangement of the two clauses that the natural order of the events is mirrored. But if, instead of and, we used the temporal conjunction before or after, we may describe the event either in an iconic way 4 , where the linear order is related to the order of events, or in a non-iconic way 5 , where the linear order is unrelated to the order of events: 4 a.
Virginia got married before she had a baby. After she had the baby, Virginia got married. Before she had a baby, Virginia got married. Virginia had a baby after she got married. Sequential-order iconicity is also found within the structure of a sentence. Bill painted the green door. Bill painted the door green. In 6a , the door was already green and then painted over again, but we do not know what colour it was painted. In 6b , we do not know the original colour of the door but we know that it came out green.
All these binary expressions are irreversible. Further evidence of this iconic principle is also found in the word order of subject, verb and object in a sentence. In almost all the languages of the world, the subject precedes the object. SVO: The lawyer wrote the letter. He knows that the lawyer the letter wrote. Finally wrote the lawyer the letter. The principle of distance accounts for the fact that things which belong together conceptually tend to be put together linguistically, and things that do not belong together are put at a distance.
This principle explains the grammati- cal contrast in the following pair of sentences: 9 a.
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A noisy group was hanging around the bar. A group of noisy youngsters were hanging around the bar. In sentence 9a , the singular noun group agrees with the singular verb immedi- ately following it. In sentence 9b , the noun group is put at some distance from the verb, which now agrees with the plural noun youngsters adjacent to it. With certain quantifying expressions as in a number of students and a lot of people, plural agreement has become the grammatical norm.
The principle of distance also accounts for the various types of subordinate clauses following the verb of a main clause. English has, amongst others, three types of clauses after a main verb: A clause without to 10a , a clause with to 10b , and a clause with that 10c : 10 a. I made her leave. I wanted her to leave. I hoped that she would leave. In 10c , there is no impact whatsoever on the other person and, hence, the distance between the verbs is greatest.
Romeo sent his girlfriend a Valentine card. Romeo sent a Valentine card to his girlfriend. The iconic principle of quantity accounts for our tendency to associate more form with more meaning and, conversely, less form with less meaning.
The same principle is applied by young children, who express the notion of plurality as in trees by repeating the word tree several times: Look, daddy, a tree and another tree and another tree. This iconic device of repetition is known as reduplication. Thus, the increasing quantities of language forms in the following examples are meant to convey increasing respect for the hearer: 12 a. No smoking. Would you mind not smoking here, please. Customers are requested to refrain from smoking if they can. We would appreciate if you could refrain from smoking cigars and pipes as it can be disturbing to other diners.
Thank you. I obtained the privilege of his acquaintance. The quantity principle also implies that less meaning requires less form. This is precisely what happens with information that is felt to be redundant. Thus, we use the less explicit form 14a rather than the more explicit version 14b : 14 a. Charles said that he was short of money and so did his girl-friend.
Charles said that he was short of money and his girl-friend said that she was short of money, too. The form so did in 14a replaces the whole verbal expression following the subject girl-friend. A number of syntactic phenomena such as the use of pronouns and the reduction of full sentences are due to the operation of the quantity principle. Conversely, if such redundant sentences are used as in 14b , they express the same idea as the shorter form, but on top of that they tend to express emphasis, irony or a negative attitude.
This is one of the reasons why the link between the form and the meaning of symbolic signs was called arbitrary by the founding father of modern linguistics, Ferdinand de Saussure. However, while the notion of arbitrariness certainly holds true for most of the simple words of a language, it is at odds with our general human disposition of seeing meaning in forms. For example, the newly coined word software was formed by analogy to the existing word hardware. The compound sign hardware consists of two simple words, hard and ware, which are both arbitrary.
But the com- pound is no longer arbitrary because the combination of the two parts leads to a more or less transparent meaning. This meaning was extended to refer to the machinery and equipment of a computer, and by analogy, the programmes running the computer were called software. The word software is still a symbolic sign in that there is only a conventionalized connection between the form and its meaning, but it is not arbitrary, since the pairing of its form and meaning is motivated.
As a linguistic term, motivation refers to non- arbitrary links between a form and the meaning of linguistic expressions. The factor of motivation is at work both in the hearer and the speaker. The hearer wants to make sense of linguistic expressions, particularly the new ones. Language resides, not in dictionaries, but in the minds of the speakers of that language. Therefore, in order to understand the nature of language, we will also have to look at our conceptual world and how it has shaped the signs. Language only covers part of the world of concepts which humans have or may have.
Such concepts which slice reality into relevant units are called categories. Conceptual categories are concepts of a set as a whole. Whenever we perceive something, we automatically tend to catego- rize it. For example, when we hear a piece of music, we automatically categorize it as rock or as classical music or as something else. Thus, the world is not some kind of objective reality existing in and for itself but is always shaped by our categorizing activity, i. This does not mean that we create a subjective reality, but as a community we agree about our intersubjective experiences.
Conceptual categories which are laid down in a language are linguistic categories, or, linguistic signs. Any linguistic sign has a form and a meaning, which roughly speaking is identical with a concept. A meaning or concept relates to some entity in our experienced world. The human conceptualizer, conceptual categories and linguistic signs are interlinked as shown in Table 2. Table 2. The notion of construal becomes even more evident, if we compare the names for the same object in various languag- es. Thus what English construes as horseshoe i. All these signs are motivated: English and French see a relationship between the animal as a whole and the protecting device, while German relates the protect- ing device to the relevant body part of the horse.
Moreover, French and German highlight the material the protecting device is made of, whereas English by using shoe takes an anthropocentric view of the scene. So far we have looked at conceptual categories as they are laid down in words, or technically, as lexical categories. Conceptual categories may also show up as grammatical categories. Look at that rain! And the rain, it raineth every day. These examples show another important fact of language: In the structure of a sentence, each lexical category is at the same time a grammatical category.
Thus, the lexical category rain can either be framed into the grammat- ical category of a noun or a verb. Chairs also come in a variety of types as illustrated in Figure 3. When we are asked to draw a picture of a chair, we are most likely to draw a picture of a kitchen chair and not an armchair. The choice of a prototypical chair also relates to its functions: It is a type of chair which we sit on, not one we lie on. Also the shape and the material plays a part. A rocking chair or a swivel chair is somewhat less prototypical than a kitchen chair.
However, all the items in Figure 3 are chairs, so that alongside prototypical members of a category and less prototypical ones, we also have more peripheral or marginal members such as the armchair or wheelchair, and even dubious cases such as the highchair. But the boundaries between a chair and a stool are far from absolute, and what some people call a stool is a chair for others. Other Inquisitions. New York: Washington Square Press, p.
Here we will only look at the grammatical category of word classes. Each word class is a category in itself. Collins Dictionary. We needed a new telephone. We called the telephone company. They installed it in the afternoon. But they did a lousy job. I am still amazed at their stupidity. A word such as telephone is a prototypical noun: It denotes a concrete, physical, three-dimensional thing. The noun company is less prototypical: It denotes a non-concrete entity, i. The temporal noun afternoon has no concrete existence and is an even less prototypical member of nouns.
The noun job refers to an action and, hence, is more verb-like in its meaning, while the noun stupidity refers to a property and is more adjective-like in meaning. The meanings traditionally associated with word classes only apply to prototypical members; the meanings of peripheral members run over into each other. Yet, there is, after all, a good reason for having word classes in language. Protoypical nouns denote time-stable phenomena, while verbs, adjectives and adverbs denote more temporary phenomena. All languages have nouns and verbs, most languages also have adjectives, but the remaining word classes may not be represented overtly.
The word class of particles plays an important role in English, but is not found in the Romance languages. He picked up the paper. Il ramassait le journal. He picked the paper up. He climbed up the tree. What this brief discussion has shown is that grammatical categories are not as clear-cut as traditionally has been assumed. Signs always stand for something else, which we call their meaning. This set of signs results from cognitive principles which help humans to organize their worlds and experiences in it.
The ego is the centre for deictic expressions and for the deictic orientation of objects. But some objects like chairs or cars have inherent orientation. The principle of symbolicity accounts for the purely conventional relation between the form and the meaning of signs. This is known as the arbitrary nature of symbolic signs or the arbitrariness of language. The large number of arbitrary lexical signs should not underestimate the value in language of non-symbolic signs, i. Linguistic signs are part of the conceptual world of the human mind. We have many more concepts and thoughts than linguistic expressions.
Concepts which structure our world of thought are conceptual categories, i. Conceptual categories may also be expressed as linguistic categories. These appear as lexical categories, while the smaller number of grammatical categories provides the more general structural framework of language. The further one gets away from the centre of a category to its periphery, the more the category tends to become fuzzy.
Recent introductions to linguistics are Taylor and Ungerer and Schmid The relation of language to human cognition is analyzed by Talmy , Studies of the iconic principle in language are Haiman , Posner and Ungerer and Schmid The psychological basis of categories and prototypicality is experimentally explored in Rosch , What types of sign iconic, indexical, symbolic are involved in the following cases? In what way are the following expressions iconic? Department store ad: We have rails and rails and rails of famous fashion.
See Naples and die. I swear by Almighty God that what I am about to say is the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth. In what way do the indexical principles, egocentricity and anthropocentricity, play a role in the ordering of the following irreversible pairs of words? Which indexical principle is not respected in b? If b were to occur, what would it mean? The results of the study depart from our expectation. Our expectation departs from the results of the study. The expressions in italics are peripheral members of their particular grammatical category such as noun, adjective, adverb, etc.
The approach has to be simple and low cost. This is the very man. Specify the word class of round in each of the following examples. My friend is coming round the corner. She came round when she got something to drink. After school we can play a round of golf. Lexicology 2. In the present chapter the meanings and the structure of words are studied.
This is lexicology, i. In this approach we can go from the form of a word to the various senses. In both approaches the same general route will be followed. Categories are clear-cut at the centre but tend to be more fuzzy towards the periphery. These are probably the experiences that have more prominence in a given cultural community. But this is not the way that language works. On average, a word form has three to four senses. A good dictionary usually lists several senses for one lexical item. But we can also follow the opposite approach. This is what a thesaurus does. This is summarized in Table 1.
Synonymy The fact that two words have the same or nearly the same meaning, e. Antonymy The fact that two words have the opposite or nearly the opposite meanings, e. These two paths will now be systematically explored in Sections 2. In Section 2. You can point to it indexical sign , you can draw a picture that resembles the thing iconic sign , or you can say the word apple, which is a symbolic sign. The word itself is of course not the thing itself, but only a symbol for the thing. A symbolic sign is a given form which symbol- izes or stands for a concept or a meaning and this concept is related to a whole category of entities in the conceptual and experiential world.
There is a direct, though conventional link between A form and B concept, meaning and between B concept and C referent, i. But there is only an indirect link between A form and C referent or entity in world , indicated by the interrupted line AC. We will refer to the former simply as word form or word and put it in italics, and to the latter as meaning — or if a word form is polysemous, as its senses — and put it in single quotation marks.
Chapter 2. Thus in the case of a walnut, the referent is the whole seed-bearing part. In the case of the melon in the second, technical sense , the referent is rather the core with the seeds. However, in the every-day sense, it is rather the edible part. Cut oranges b. In the fruit example, the category members happen to be material objects, but in the case of verbs, they could be actions and in the case of adjectives, they could be properties.
In the next sections we will look more closely at the relationships among members of a category. We will look at which member is considered the most central or salient one 2. This principle does not only apply to the members of a category, but also to the various senses of a word form. The question then is: How can we tell which sense of a word form like fruit is the most central? There are three interrelated ways that help us determine which sense of a word is the most central. In other words, the most salient, basic senses are the centre of semantic cohesion in the category: They hold the category together by making the other senses accessible to our understanding.
Also, if we were to count the actual uses of words in a Northern European context, references to apples or oranges are likely to be more frequent than references to mangoes. Word senses are also linked to one another in a systematic way through several cognitive processes so that they show an internally structured set of links. In order to analyze these links and the processes that bring them about, let us consider the senses of school in 3. We must hand in the geography project to the school in May. The last case in 3h is a problem.
So, these eight senses appear to form a cluster that is structured in the shape of a radial network, i. What are now the processes that constitute the links within this radial network? In metonymy the semantic link between two or more senses of a word is based on a relationship of contiguity, i. In fact, the expression the school can metonymically stand for each of its components, i. More generally, contiguity is the state of being in some sort of contact such as that between a part and a whole, a container and the contents, a place and its inhabitants, etc.
With such an expression we mean of course the contents in the bottle and not the bottle itself. Because the bottle and its contents are literally in contact with each other, this is considered a metonymic link. As we will see in Chapter 3. Referring to the bottom part of a mountain as the foot of the mountain is based on a conceived similarity between the structure of the human body and a mountain and hence a transfer is made from the set-up of the human body to that of the environment.
But the similarity is completely in the eyes of the beholder: If he wants to see the similarity, it is there. But the link is never objectively given as in the case of metonymy, where the relation of contiguity always involves some objective link between the various senses of a word. In metaphor one of the basic senses of a form, the source domain, e. The word queen also went through a specialization process.
Each language abounds with cases of specialization. Some other examples of generalization are moon and to arrive. Categories may have clear centres, but their boundaries may not be clear-cut, and categories may overlap. As already discussed in Chapter 1. As an illustra- tion, let us consider the question whether the central sense of fruit can be delimited in a straightforward fashion. This shape has three lines, but only two angles.
But these are not always necessary since lemons are not sweet, avocados are not necessarily soft, and bananas do not contain parts that are immediately recognizable as seeds. There are of course a number of characteristics that are necessary. It could very well be that the image that spontaneously comes to mind when we think of fruit is very clear-cut. Indeed, when we ask people to name a few examples of fruit, they will come up with very much the same list. What is the purpose of onomasiological analysis? Some names for dog breeds may occur more often than others.
A basic level term is a word which, amongst several other possibilities, is used most readily to refer to a given phenomenon. There are many indications that basic level terms are more salient than others.
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From a linguistic point of view, basic level terms are usually short and morphologically simple. In the domain of garment, items such as trousers, skirts, and coats may be considered basic level members. However, it cannot predict which term among the terms at the same level is preferred and used most often.
Imagine you are looking at a magazine and you see a very short skirt with two loose front panels that are wrapped. Is it both a wrap-over skirt and a miniskirt? What are we most likely to call it? A detailed analysis of such terms has shown that fashion journalists prefer the term miniskirt in such a case.
If there are several equally descriptive terms at one level, what criteria are applied in the choice of one term over another? See Figure 2. We can explain this fact with the notion of entrenchment. For example, in the past the two words by and cause formed the new compound because. This newly formed compound was used so often that people were no longer aware of its origin. A similar process may apply to the choice of one particular member of a category rather than the other.
These processes may also be applied in onomasiology. As we saw earlier, onomasiology deals with the relations among the names we give to categories. These categories, in turn, are not just there in isolation, but they belong together according to a given conceptual domain. In a hierarchical taxonomy the higher level is the superordinate level, e.
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But car is itself a superordinate category or hypernym, if compared with sports car, which is a hyponym of car. Thus Table 6 combines two things, i. Basic Subordinate wrap-over mini- leggings shorts jeans shirt T-shirt sweater skirt skirt shirt, T-shirt, sweater, etc. It certainly shaped the way I raised my Bonesy, who grew up to be the most working trial titled Bouvier in history.
Nosework for Dogs , John Cree, Very interesting : scentwork tests in the UK , how to train and handle for them. I especially like the UK "area search" test and I think it would be great fun to have this one here. For each task several persons with disabilities describe how they taught the task to their own dog.
An excellent book about flock guardian dogs, of great interest to livestock keepers, especially sheep and goat keepers. Note that such dogs are diametrically different from herding dogs. Therapy Dogs , Kathy Diamond Davis, Gives a very good overview of training and management of dogs visiting hospitals, nursing homes, etc. The classic and seminal work on tracking : considered "the Bible" almost all AKC trackers.
It is designed to ensure that even a minimally talent dog with a minimally talent handeler can become well prepared for the T. In my opinion, the preparation for the T. Like most who used this book to train their first TD and TDX dog, I have since modified the methods for each dog according to how I "read" that dog. But if things are not going well, then it's back to "the Bible". Absolutely a MUST READ for parents ; highly recomended for all dog people including the childless ones, because sooner or later your dog will meet other people's children.
Living with Kids and Dogs This book incorporates current dog behavior knowledge and training techniques. The author has also come up with a few clever ideas that I have not seen elsewhere. Breed Rescue : how to start and run a successful program , Sheila Boneham, Covers most of the major isssues and methodology in any rescue program , whether oriented to one particular breed or not.
Also highly desirable for shelter workers seeking to understand how breed rescues opperate and how they can increase a shelter's adoption rate. Sucessful Dog Adoption , Sue Sternberg, An exellent book by a somewhat controversial writer. Her goal is to teach prospective adopters how to evaluate dogs as they appear at the shelter in order to select a dog who is very friendly and has the least possible risk for biting. She is particularly focusing on the ordinary not-very-dog-experienced person, who wants to adopt as safe a dog as possible.
Many of the dogs she would put in the "grey area" category, ie don't adopt without having a knowledgable dog person assess the dog, are dogs who will probably work out fine for an experienced rescuer or an experienced dog person. The book also has a lot of suggestions towards improving shelters and rescue organizations to make them into the best place for adopters to seek a dog. She emphasizes that every encounter of shelter or rescuer with a surendering owner or a potential adopter should be viewed as an oppertunity to educate that person about dog issue.
I completely agree!! A number of her observations eg those on interactions between dogs at play and on conflicts between dogs sharing a home, are very much in accord with my own. Very good prices available for volumn purchases. See www. Layperson's book on sports medicine for dogs. But relevant to all dogs who are physically active. An excellent layperson's guide to some of the newest modes of treatment as of the late 's and early 's.
Excellent and inspiring. Many readers find that it will also help them to deal with their M. This book is so good and so essential that I just had to list it as one of the Top Ten, making that Top Twelve. Quite valuable. Although this book is somewhat older , it is still very useful as it focuses on educating the owner in first aid and in assessing symptoms and situations to make good decisions as to whether this is a real Emergency grab car keys and phone vet to let her know you are on the way , something that should be seen within 24 hours, somethng that should be seen within a few days, something to phone the vet about, or something that is likely to respond to home treatment.
The flow charts for decision making are the core of the book. The art of communication between vet and client and the philosophy of practice are the key topics. A great gift for anyone considering a career in veterinary medicine or in hairless primate medicine. Give a copy to your vet and to your MD.
bbmpay.veritrans.co.id/donde-conocer-gente-mugardos.php A very good layperson's guide to medications ; info is in good agreement with professional texts. Unfortunately lacks pictures of the pills. Similar book, "The Pill Book, the illustrated guide to the most prescribed drugs in the United States" , is published for human medications. A very good layperson's guide to canine health and disease; excellent introduction and overview.
Like all vet books, some info has been superceded by newer treatments since publication date. A professional text for classes in veterinary ethics and veterinary law , but has substantial interest for all vet clients and animal caretakers. My own copy is heavily annotated. A seminal book in the field. A classic and seminal work. A professional text, of interest to all. During this time she was also the award-winning pet columnist for the San Francisco Chronicle.
Upon receiving her degree, Dr. Visit her online at www. Customer Reviews Average Review. See All Customer Reviews. Shop Books. Add to Wishlist.
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